Classical Studies 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Pamphylia, Transvestism, Undressed

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MARCH 15 2016 LECTURE
THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS
All of the emperors that
follow are either related to
Augustus or the stepfamily of
Augustus. Julius is the last
name of Augustus. Claudius
is the last name of Tiberius.
Hence the Julio-Claudians.
The influence of Augustus
was far greater than his roles
of governor or tribune would
have held.
Tiberius: 14-37 AD
The main heir and stepson of Augustus
oMarried Augustus daughter
His stepsister
oThere was speculation at the time that Tiberius was chosen because he was not
charismatic
Augustus wanted to make himself look more prestigious
This was probably not true
He was awkward, introverted, and did not like public shows so he capped
the budget for them
He came into the Senate after Augustus died and the Senators were wondering what
would happen to his provinces and the all the titles that he helped
oAugustus’ intentions were for Tiberius to gain everything that he had held
Tiberius did not know if he should hold all those positions but the
decisions had already been made for him
One Senator asked him how much power he wanted since it was
all his for the taking
Augustus in his willed said that Tiberius could not name his own son Drusus as his heir
but had to name his nephew Germanicus his heir
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MARCH 15 2016 LECTURE
oThe people were waiting for Tiberius to die so Germanicus could rule
He was a capable military leader whom the people loved
He was found dead in Syria and there were rumours that he had
been poison
oEvidence of witchcraft was found beneath the painted walls
of the place that he was found in
The people were suspicious that Tiberius had
something to do with it
oAs his body made its way back to Italy, crowds of people
went out to view the body
The people wanted a huge funeral but Tiberius
refused on the grounds that he was a private citizen
who would have a private family funeral
Tiberius named his son his new heir but Drusus died
oHis daughter-in-law thought that her husband was going to
kill his father and she told him
SEJANUS
oWas the head of the emperor’s personal guard
Praetorian Guard
Also brings forth evidence that Drusus was
planning his father’s death
oAsks to marry Drusus’ widow
Led to Tiberius realizing that Sejanus and Livilla
had planned this entire thing as they were having
an affair
Tiberius killed Sejanus and his family and
friends
oSince Tiberius went to live on Capri and would not meet
with the Senate, Sejanus was free to do whatever he
wanted with the authority of the emperor
He would accuse people that he did not like of
treason and had them killed
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MARCH 15 2016 LECTURE
Once had a women killed who had
undressed in front of a statue of the
emperor
Had a man charged and killed for not
praising Augustus enough in a book that he
had written
Economic and Military Policy
Tiberius ran Rome at a surplus. People
lump him in with the bad Emperors of
Rome. As an emperor, he was a very
effective ruler. He codified a general plan
for military expansion. His policy was that
the military was a zero sum game. People
would have to convince him that they
needed the legions more than another place
in the empire. He did not enlist more or
increase the budget. He had them moved
around based on where they were needed
the most. The problem was that
Germanicus would not listen to him. He
was conquering Germany against the will of
Tiberius as he did not feel like Germany
was going to give Rome anything. Tiberius
recalled Germanicus and sent him to Syria
where he died.
Caligula: 37-41 AD
The son of Germanicus was named the heir of Tiberius when he died
oWas 25 years old when he gained power
Known as “Little Boots”
oThat what his name translates to
He was beloved by the people until he got very sick one day and became hated by the
people
oMade his horse consul
oInvade the English Channel instead of Britannica
Bankrupts the Treasury
oWas spending lavishly and run through all the money that Tiberius had saved for
the empire
Would host dinner parties and force them to gamble until they fell asleep
He would then make their bets for them and would make sure that
he won everything
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