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Classics November 19th .odt

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
Classical Studies 1000
Professor
Prof
Semester
Fall

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th Classics November 19 The Peloponnesian War 431-405 BC War between Sparta and Athens – unmitigated disaster, meaningless war – Athens: orange, Sparta: purple – Peloponnesian league, alliances are: if anyone bothers you, we will help you, otherwise leave us alone – Athens was taking control of the league, they were compelling polis to join, if you didn’t want to belong, you must pay us because you are getting the benefits – Encouraging Sparta, lets attack them: defensive league – Athens had not attacked, they were observing land around Sparta – Athens attacks ships in the North West, Sparta agrees to attackAthens – “Athens is done,” because Sparta has never lost. Either disband or be crushed – Battle between the supreme forces of Sparta against the Naval league ofAthens – Advantage:Athens did not have to defeat, just had to survive, Sparta had to crushAthens – Athens advantage: more people. Disadvantage: were not loyal, desperate to break away from their alliance with Athens – Sparta disadvantage: less people.Advantage: soldiers were loyal First Phase – Sparta gathered up soldiers, got together allies, and made a march intoAthens to fight against Athens – Athenians would not come out – withdrawn into city – Sparta went around, captured livestock, levelled crops, did some damage – Athenians: were angry, especially farmers, the battle plan was to stay insideAthens – Athens built huge walls around the city itself, no other greek city had these walls – Around city there was a highway, and around the highway was also walls, then ships on the harbour – Spartans retreated Second Year – Athenians withdrew into the city again – Stuck with this plan, even with a huge plague – Plague was particularly bad inAthens, but do not go outside, eventually the Spartan will get tired and give up on attackingAthens – Crops were ruined, but others sent them food – While this was going on, OneAthenian aligh revolted without Spartan provocation – Athens: what should we do because of the traders? – Sell all the woman to slavery, and kill all the men, Second vote was sent off, and caught up with the first boat, and decided to spare all most all of the communities that rebelled, only the ring leaders were executed Archidamian War: 431-421 – Sparta is invading by land to Mytilene,Athens will send soldiers on ships to attack Pylos – Sent back Sparta soldiers, about 120 of them got trapped, Spartan soldiers captured alive and brought back to Athens – Sparta called off war, “We offer peace.” – Athens declined, now Athens wanted to conquer Sparta, changed their battle plan, soAthenians held onto the 120 Spartan soldiers – Spartan commander Brasidas, 7 years into the war, took soldiers, and marched up Greece and went North, intimidate or made offers toAthenian allies, who were very favourable to this – Athens in a panic, accepted their peace offering out of fear of taking their allies After 10 years of fighting, Peace was declared, both sides: Sparta wont interfere with Athens, and Athens will not try to lead away Spartans for 30 years – Sparta's allies were frustrated with this, and refused to sign the peace treaty – Sparta and Athens were long time allies – Some Greeks thought this was just temporary, this peace cannot last Truce (421-415) – lasted for 6 years – In the year 415, Alcibiades, an Athenian, the nephew of a famous leader, lust for personal power and honour and glory, persuaded two things 1.Athens to make an alliance, and for some Spartans alliance to break away from Sparta. (Sparta found out and crushed them) 2. Pushed Athenians to force, an island Melos, (which was neutral), to join theAthenians. Join or we will kill all your males, and executed a large majority to send out a message Sicilian Expedition (415-413) – Persuaded Athenians to send a fleet, to conquer Syracuse: complete disaster – Entire fleet was wiped out: 40,000 athenians died – Alcibiades never sailed in the fleet, because just before the expedition was about to sail, the athenians woke up to see that all the penises had been chopped off the statues (rumour it was al and his friends drunk) rather than weight trial, he fledAthens and went to Sparta to tell them how to defeat theAthenians – War was declared again – This phase, was entirely different – First phase: Spartans were going to meet theAthenians nobly. Second phase: how it got into a total war. Last phase: this is not working, athens will not fight: total war – Total war: its more important to win the war then to follow the code The Ionian War – Don't leaveAthens, build a permanent fort, and continually harass them – When you march up toAthens, offer any slave freedom if they will disownAthens – Propaganda, lies, bribes – Athens: go to Spartan allies, terrorize them, attack their families, threaten allies with death – We should let go of theAthenian allies, who dare weaken us: things were turning ugly, with the attitude of win at all costs – Alcibiades, “The persians hateAthens..” – Go to the persians, ask them for God, so you can build a fleet that is capable to conquer the Athenians Second Phase – Sparta did go to Persia – No money, owning Asia Minor, that they had originally controlled – Sparta surrendered, for gold – Athens had lost much of their fleet, trying to staff it – Alcibiades was caught sleeping with a Spartan wife, and fled to Persia – Told Persia to give them just enough Gold, so the two can just destroy each other – Athens in a panic, decided they should suspend democracy – Going to pick 400 people to make all of our decisions randomly – Spartan fleet is now ready – Alcibiades – I will give youAthenians Persian Gold, if you allow me back – didn't have Gold, but won a victory, and then messed up again, and just retreated to his own house that he had built and disappeared – Year 405:Athenian fleet was conquered, when they dragged ships out to dry off, Spartans came upon them – Rumour –Athenians did this to end the war, mostAthenians wanted to end this war – Athenians after 8 months of starvation finally surrendered – Punishment that was given to Athens was so mild, “we will surrender our ships if you agree to stay mild” – Lost league, had to tear down walls, and only allowed to have a navy of 12 ships – Corinth and Macbes – wanted Athens destroyed, Sparta refused Effects of the Peloponnesian War – Not uncommon to see switching – Drive the Pro Spartans, or ProAthenians out of the city – Went back and forth like this – No trade goin
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