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Classics 2200 Lecture Notes

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
Classical Studies 2200
Professor
Kendall Sharp
Semester
Fall

Description
Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 Sept 12, 2012 o Myth 1. Story or story elements 2. Traditional – no text, author, only variants - variants exist in sources, no original - myths don’t have authors but sources have authors 3. Subject to group control - mythology >muthologia  muthos + logos o Uses of Myth - Never the focal activity, always used for some other purpose - basis/inspired: > religious rituals and ceremonies > civic dramatic performances > decorative painting > sculpture for various purposes Sept 17, 2012 o Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey are “epic poems” - subset nostoi or “returns” “homecomings” - Odyssey is a nostos poem > trouble at home in Ithaca > Telemachus, Penelope, suitors - the gods of partial > Athena: pro-Odysseus > Poseidon: anti-Odysseus > Zeus: balancing divine politics - stories about the generation of heroes - Trojan War was a watershed event - Pre Trojan War  Jason & the Argonauts, Golden Fleece, Oedipus and the Seven at Thebes - Trojan War  Iliad, Sack of Ilium - Post war  nostoi, Odyssey, Oresteia - oral tradition: “continuous mutation” of myth Epicasta = Jocasta Cadmeians = people of Thebes o Fury (Erinys) - avenging goddesses - Chthonic vs Olympian > Chthonic  underground gods/spirits > Olympian  gods on olympus - nicknamed Eumenides = “The Kindly Ones” o Aeschylus - one of three playwrights (which include Sophocles, Euripides) who wrote tragedies - wrote an Oedipus trilogy: Laius, Oedipus, Seven Against Thebes Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 - Satyr play: Sphinx - in Aeschylus’ version of Oedipus: > Oedipus at acme of fame and power > savior of Thebes from “devouring past” > blinds himself, curses his sons Eteocles & Polyneices > the curse and Erinys > trans-generational > climax: not just recognition but curse too o Oedipus Myth and variants - obligatory story elements > Laius is cursed by Pelops for violating his son > obligatory story elements: a king with unhappy end or fall, paricide, incest > obligatory exposure as infant, crippling - optional/mutating story element > Jocasta/Epicasta and her children > sphinx > blinding self or otherwise > exile/death/keeps on living unhappily o Mythologists - epic poets: Homer, Hesiod > myths replaced/criticized against written versions - genealogists: Hecatacus, Pherecydes > rationalized myths of procreation - rationalist doubters: Herodotus > doing history in the age of the Sophists - philosophers: Plato o History of the Tragedy - Thespis - Chorus plus actors - mask & high-boots (kothornoi) - civic role of tragedy > religion & civic life highly interwined > hard to distinguish in polis (city-state) > tragedy was performed at a religious festival  Greater Dionysia (or Lenaea) > part of the cult of Dionysus - theater vs political assembly - ideally all citizens present > the whole demos (democracy) > GROUP CONTROL OF TRADITIONAL STORY Sept 24, 2012 Oedipus Rex vs Other Versions o Oedipus as Athens th - 5 Century, the Athenian Century - Persia invades but Athenian navy defeats them - Athenian dominates confederacy and takes over the protection of Greeks - The Delian League  Athens’ way to control their money/power - Athens as “king” or tyrant Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > their power, wealth, and intellectual flourishing > confidence, competence, energy, initiative (qualities of Athens) - king by merit, beloved and respected, also “tyrannos” - alacrity in action, even impatience - quick to anger when provoked - man of action and generally good judgement, “gifted amateur” - control - Sophocles writes play called Antigone in 440BC > famous song: Ode to Man > before Peloponnesian War against Sparta, a plague spreads through Athens (430BC) - Oedipus Rex is written 420BC > written after plague, midway through war > a critique of the optimism and confidence of 440 - The Delphic Oracle: “know thyself” “Nothing too much” > self-knowledge, restraint > call no man happy until he is dead > key to a good society or community o Structure of a Tragedy - Episode > when characters talk to one another - choral ode (song) > chorus repeats the same lines - before the play starts > all the mythical stuff is revealed slowly via dramatized conversations > audience knows generally, Sophocles “backfills” what traditional options he has chosen o Structure of Oedipus Rex (according to Aristotle) - recognition (anagnorisis) - reversal of fortune (peripeteia) > recognition happens in the best way at the same time as peripety - pity and fear, then catharsis - Oedipus’ character is successful but not perfect > reverse due, not to crime, but to unconscious error - nothing improbable in the drama itself o Structure of Oedipus Rex - Prologue: Plague, Delphic Oracle “Purify miasma, punish murderer” - Parados - Episode I: Oedipus’ curse, Teiresias > curse is rash, what really seals his exile in the end > how does he know he could not have received purification in some special way from Apollo - Choral Ode 1 - Episode II: Jocasta, Laius’ oracle, rampage recalled “Bring the herdsman!” > Jocasta says oracles and prophecies are just old fashioned superstitioned - Choral Ode II - Episode III: News from Corinth, Messenger/Herdsman, Jocasta flees > Jocasta now realizes that the oracles and prophecies are real, Oedipus starting to believe that the oracles are wrong - Choral Ode III Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 - Episode IV: Messenger recognizes Herdsman, Oedipus realizes the truth - Choral Ode IV - Exodus: eyes and sight, exile requested > now Oedipus is like Teiresias, he sees better with no eyes, also connected to Apollo but impure > outcast status emphasizes his individuality and singularity o Sophocles differences - adds herdsman/messenger - adds Corinth to Oedipus’ biography - incest: plays up the MILF angle more than other sources > mentions Jocasta’s children - downplays curse and revenge, emphasizes Apollo, prophecy and purification > moves location of Three Ways from area sacred to Furies to road between Thebes and Delphi - adds Teiresias > counterpoint to Oedipus > emphasize theme of self knowledge/self ignorance - self blinding and self imposed exile - plague/miasma is added as revelatory > cultural relevance - herdsmen recognizing each other adds no mythic content >purely for the sake of this version or variant of the myth - master purpose: the drama of self discovery and theology o Apollo vs Dionysus (according to Nietzsche) - Apollo “shoots from afar” > instrument: harp/lyre, mode: visual/distance > state of consciousness: the dream, dream-image > connected with the prophetic function - Dionysus “the god who comes” > instrument: pipe, mode: hearing/immersion > Carnival and Carnivalesque mask - state of consciousness: intoxicated - Greek tragedy unites these two (two art deities) > only art-form, only system of thought to do so > tragedy is a system of thought about the human condition o How does Sophocles merge these two? - Apollo is THE god of the play > curse, Delphi, prophecy - dramatic tension mounts to emphasize that audience knows, and knows that Oedipus does not know - climax hits when Oedipus knows what you know o Structuralism (from Levi-Strauss) - myth must “get to” the members of a community enough to live on another generation - What kind of story/story elements grab a community’s attention > structuralism says: “cultural contradictions” > myth mediates between two contradictories provides way to live with them unresolved -myth: a culture/society reflects about itself > whether people realize they are doing so or not Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > resolve contradictions in cultural code > nature vs culture - structural law of a myth > what the myth “means”, its logic > organizes the gross constituent units or mythemes > cf phonemes: make sense by being different from each other > system of differences: a resource for meaning > affirms and denies autochthony > mediates between two poles or terms - gross constituent units are the main story elements ex/ Oedipus marries his mother, solves the riddle etc - how can you tell what a mytheme is? > INTERPRETATION: not subjective, but intersubjective > evidence: communication, signs, always already “meaningful” > infer from the cultural system “cultural relevance” > object of human scientific knowledge: “getting to know the tellers of the myth - problem with cultural relevance, selection of mythemes - JP Vernant (after L-S) also noticed lameness in the paternal line, which is connected to irregular descent > Labdacus (the lame one)—dies too early > Laius (Left handed) – sex deviant, infanticide > Oedipus (Swellfoot) – parricide, incest, curse > Eteocles & Polyneices – self-extinguishing - Oedipus has to encounter Laius on his way back to Thebes > clash of generation – coming/going the wrong way > rather than normal succession - Riddle & Sphinx > riddle: one voice, 4 feet in the morning, 2 feet in the afternoon, and 3 feet in the evening human > Oedipus is all at once, two-footed, three-footed like his father (same wife), four- footed like his children (same mother) > NB: sphinx defines the creature by its gait > riddle defines the problem of Oedipus > he solves the riddle but does not recognize the riddle describes himself at each and every age - recombinatorial system > elements (mythemes) make sense in terms of the logic of myth by getting recombined in various ways > Oedipus myth recombines society’s basic status and social roles with the vicissitudes of personal identity to produce its story > it thereby meditates on the normal order by inventing a systematically abnormal one Oct 15, 2012 o Gilgamesh - a Mesopotamian tale, eastward of Greece and much earlier - East to West culture drift - compares well to Odysseus, qua “hero” - Sumerian culture had a lot of prestige - culture hero (cf. Prometheus): built the wall “which you see today here in Uruk” - ANE god-king Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > divine, but also dreams show his status - the plot: the process of Gilgamesh acquiring social humanity > no question whether strong enough to rule o Importance for Greek myth - influence vs innate in the mind - structuralism is usually thought of as “innate” > but really it works better as a way of organizing the phenomenon of influence and diffusion - the Mesopotamian myths drifted into Greek myths as a result of the oral delivery and structuralism connects them o Questions of diffusion and influence - several examples of greek myths that are very similar to the Gilgamesh epic - Gilgamesh has the plant that brings immortality and a snake stole it > there is a greek myth that is very similar - add chart o Nature vs Culture - Gilgamesh acquires his humanity > not socialized into humanity because he is 2/3 divine > “monstrously human”” > matchless strength, overweening sexual appetite > “like you” but with bodily constraints > Enkidu is a humane animal, thinks of group - Kirk contrasts earlier Sumerian version with later Akkadian one > Akkadian version makes Enkidu a second self for Gilgamesh > the Akkadian version sees potential in original for elaborating the structure of nature vs culture > the gods add Enkidu to Gilgamesh’s life to mediate between nature and culture > Gilgamesh comes to care for him (socialization), and upon his death, begins his own move from hyper-culture (divine arrogance) to human nature and mortality > undergoes an initiation - recall that according to Levi-Strauss, myth’s great task is to make some cultural contradiction make a sort of sense, according to its own non-logical logic - our own humanity presents us with the contradiction that, by nature, weare animals in our bodies, but, by culture, our social relations make us persons > naturally, we die, eat and copulate, culturally, we are immortal, dine, and love > nature goes on by itself, culture takes work - L-S thinks that all sorts of other contradictory pairs can be resolved into the basic pair nature/culture - beginning: Gilgamesh is hyper-cultural, Enkidu is hyper-natural - middle: enter nature to kill its monster (Humbaba) - middle: re-enter culture, kill its monster (Bull of Heaven), Enkidu insults Ishtar (excessive nature again), throws raw meat at Ishtar (raw = nature, cooked = culture) - Enkidu’s long sickness and death, important experience for Gilgamesh, the naturalism - Gilgamesh slides towards hyper-culture again in his search for immortality - Gilgamesh moderated only after underworld visit, where he is shown it’s not natural for him to live forever and he then gains/loses immortality o Ritual & Demeter - not every myth is tied to a ritual but every ritual is tied to a myth - a ritual is the cultural relevance of the myth Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 - according to Victor Turner “social drama” is a ritual that is a social action - Liminality 1. Myth-making: play with cultural factors 2. Tricksters: the myths of markers of Liminality - the Thesmophoria is the most widespread Greek festival and the principal form of the Demeter club > women in the community celebrate among them selves > distinctive feature is the pig sacrifice o Liminality: the margin - taken from rites of passage such as initiations ex/ Gilgamesh’s trip to the underworld  an initiation for him into social personhood, temporarily assumes status of dead person, learns he’s “only human, nothing more” - the exile or outcast is in permanent transition - ritual Liminality is always temporary > emphasis: you’ll be back to normal son - Betwixt & between: Mediation & Mediators - Carnival: on the threshold of abstinence - ambiguous: reversals (baby as king, males as females, humans as monsters: masks) - ambivalent: freedom - communitas: relation of “naked unaccommodated man” > among neophytes but also anytime social distance is eliminated in interpersonal relations, a bond later - release from normal constraints, making possible the deconstruction of the uninteresting constructions of common sense > break it down into cultural units which may then be reconstructed in novel ways o Rites of Passage 1. Seperation > from normal social state/role 2. Margin/Threshhold/Limen > betwixt and between old state and new 3. Aggregation/Re-integration > new normal - there are rites of passage for both cyclic and contingent rituals > cyclic rituals are those that occur on a regular basis  often the inauguration of an activity such as planting, harvesting , or moving from winter to summer pasture > contingent rituals are usually held in response to an individual or collective crisis  to demarcate the passage from one phase to another in the individual’s life cycle such as birth, puberty, marriage, death etc o Liminality & Liminoid - one works at the luminal, one plays with the liminoid - liminoid is what we have: more individualized, almost totally optional ex/ bars, clubs, concerts, entertainment - classic Greek city-states were between liminality & liminoid October 22, 2012 Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 o Ritual and Demeter 1. Cyclic  Thesmophoria festival 2. Contingent  Eleusinian mysteries - initiation ritual, for all greek speaking individuals - part of the mystery religions, only initiates know the secret o Nature of Ritual - essence of religion is tradition and continuity > we do this because we’ve always done this - Victor Turner’s definition of ritual: a stero-typed sequence of activities involving gestures, words and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and designed to influence preternatural entities or forces on behalf of the actors’ goals and interests - in traditional societies, religion and ritual play a role of huge importance, it is NON- OPTIONAL - without the communal participation in ritual, “profane human work would be, for the community, impossible to conceive - packs an emotional wallop even for non-believers - cyclic vs contingent o Demeter - the grain goddess (aka Ceres) - maternal  Demeter = meter = mother (nurturing) - more humanoid than Mother Earth (Gaia) > nurturing, reproductive mother, affection > links universal (god & life cycle) with particular (little old you) - Persephone aka Kore = Maiden, Girl > daughter of Zeus and Demeter > goddess of grain just begun to grow - Persephone & Demeter, “the two goddesses” o Demeter and Eleusian Mysteries - aetiology & aetiological myth - After getting interrupted immortalizing Baby Demophon: “[L]et all the people build me a great temple and beneath it an altar under the steep walls of the city.... I myself shall introduce rites so that later you may propitiate my mind by their right performance.” - Demeter taught the kings the celebration of holy rites which will bless whoever sees them o Homeric Hymn to Demeter - Hades kidnaps Persephone to be his wife - Demeter in her grief withdraws from Olympus and goes to Eleusis > there she tries to make baby Demophoon immortal at Keleos and Metaneira’s home > Iambe is a woman that makes Demeter laugh > Epiphany to “build me a temple for rites to propitiate me” - Demeter withdraws her gifts from mankind > the crops won’t grow - Zeus brokers a deal that Persephone is allowed to return to Olympus, but Persephone has eaten pomegranate seeds which require her to stay in the Underworld for ¾ of the year > believed that Persephone will greet the initiated when they arrive in the underworld - Demeter then returns gifts and returns to Olympus o Liminality in this hymn - Demeter withdrawing from Olympus, wandering mortals - Baby Demophon being initiated into immortality Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > ambivalent about harm > ambiguous about status (human/divine) > interruption causes Demeter to promise to found Eleusinian mysteries > he can’t live forever, but you can live on after death - Hermes who travels to the Underworld to deal with Hades - Iambe/Baubo o Eleusinian Mysteries - description T 430-432 - lesser mysteries: preliminary initiation - Great mysteries: 9 days > “sacred things” sent for from Eleusis > 30km procession from Athens to Eleusis > fasting, staying up all night - in Demeter’s temple: hierophant and epiphany > blinding flash of light - Basically, for Eleusinian mysteries, the myth comforts re death. Just as Persephone seems to be gone forever to Hades’, so do people when they die. But bcs she gives in to the life cycle, by eating the pomegranate seed, she gains a modification to her permanent stay in Hades’: the ability to return, but only cyclically/annually. Yet her return to her mother guarantees the food supply for humans. Humans also can get a modification to their permanent stay in Hades’, by means of a special relationship with Demeter - Demeter, in life, gives you the gift of food. In death, she will give you the gift of a blessed afterlife. Either way, you give in to her, suffer with her, undergo & act out the essential steps of her story, to establish/renew the cycle of life, up through her epiphany, and take part in the rites she established - when being initiated, you share with Demeter her liminal experience of being betwixt and between > because she establishes the rite during the myth, when you perform the ritual, you make your life continuous with her story > the ritual mediates between the rest of your social world and the goddess > the liminality you enter is socially real October 24, 2012 o Prometheus - a Titan - a liminality, intermediate between gods and mortals - trickster and culture hero - benefiter of mankind, gave man fire o Two versions of Prometheus 1. Hesiod - second great cultural authority (other than homer) - historical person - 8th -7 Centuries BC, Boeotia - works include Theogony, Works & Days - religious syncretizer > mixing of religions (greek & middle east) 2. Aeschylus - Athenian dramatist, tragedy - Persian War Veteran Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 - 525-456 BC - How do Hesiod and Aeschylus differ in their treatment of Prometheus’ character? Why? > they lived in different cities and periods of time, different cultural relevance > for Hesiod, life was hard and risky, the communities were barely safe from nature, and culture is for getting by and making do > Aeschylus lived in Athens and in a time when they had a higher opinion of cultural achievements > contrast Prometheus as a culture hero depending on how people of different generations rate culture o Prometheus in Hesiod - how is Prometheus both a trickster and luminal? > ambiguity, ambivalence, wily deception - the logic of the myth depends on deceit (trying to trick Zeus) > this is the non-logical piece of the myth: Zeus is not deceived but he is deceived - aetiology of sacrifice (non-holocaust, unequal division) - Fire is seen to be owed to humans > Zeus punished men by hiding fire > Prometheus steals it and gives it to humans > Zeus then punishes the humans by setting Pandora on the world - story integrates humans into the world of gods > religious and cultural integration > defines human existence: sacrifice (religious observance), fire and technology (culture), gender (marriage & family) > gender difference: Zeus’ solution to his problem with humans > technology: Prometheus’ solution to humans’ problem with nature > religious observance: humans’ solution to problem with Zeus and the gods - Prometheus creates the division between gods and humans > introduces mortality, life as we know it > fire  sacrifice, cultural meat eating (tech) - Pandora completes our mortal nature > new lifestyle: age of iron, disease, toil, scarcity, conflict > sexual reproduction into generation > humans no longer immortal or all-male - summary of the myth > There was going to be a shared meal between humans and gods > all humans were male and immortal > Prometheus mediates as he is neither god nor mortal > Hesiod uses Prometheus to make either side sort of their role in life as we know it without violating their own essential characteristics, yet altering fundamentally how they relate to each other > this is why Zeus acts as if deceived, because he wants this story to end with the relation of Gods and human beings sorted out as they are now, Zeus cannot be responsible for causing the problem and the solution Oct 29, 2012 o Gods & Boundaries - Hermes is God of boundary crossings > liminality - Demeter suffers because of boundaries > she can’t retrieve Persephone herself Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > however, her relationship with Persephone and her solution helps humans - Dionysus dissolves boundaries - Apollo sees over boundaries, without violating them o Hermes - herms (aka hermae) - god of heralds - patron of thieves, herdsmen, heralds, graves > theft: not really illegality but sneakiness and cunning - communication boundaries: god of diplomats and linguistics/translation - god of gymnasia (wrestling) - special relationship with sleep, dreams, magic, fortune-telling - guides souls to the underworld - Zeus herald - nickname is Argeiphontes or killer of Argos > Argos was Io’s, a priestess of Hera, guardian > Zeus then turns Io into a cow and sends Hermes to steal the cow - mother is Maia, descendent of Iapetos > Iapetos was a Titan, father of Prometheus - when Hermes was born > turns a tortoise into lyre > steals Apollo’s cattle Oct 31, 2012 o Hermes - hermaion - god of deceit, thieves - caduceus  hermes’ staff linked to prophecy > link to Teiresias because of double snakes (ACM 238) - herms  apotropaic (frightening evil spirits away), ithyphallic (erect phallus) - mutilation of the herms o Hermes and speech - Hermes stole Apollo’s cattle ACM 132 > tries to get away with it by saying he’s just a baby > Zeus was pleased with Hermes tricks (slayer of argos) - in the end, Hermes and Apollo become friends > their friendship is strengthened because Hermes invents the lyre and pan-pipe in exchange for honour and divination > Hermes’ goal is achieved, he wins a place in Olympus > thus his liminality is incorporated and helps Zeus rule the cosmos o Dionysus (aka Bacchus) - two streams: religion and attic tragedy > tragic choruses in Athens was invented by Thespis in the 530s > there are also the Bacchic-Orphic Mysteries - God of mask, mania, drunkenness, and growing vines (also a god of culture aka wine making) - his human female devotees are Bacchae or Maenads - his half human, half goat male decotees = satyrs - Bacchanal = wild party, rules broken Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 - dissolves boundaries, the focus on consciousness, awareness and mood > communitas (liminality), ecstasy (ekstasis) o Story of Dionysus (2 versions: Bacchae and Orphic) - Bacchae version > Semele is his mother, daughter of Cadmus, aunt of Pentheus, sister of Agave > Son of Zeus > Zeus struck Semele with lightning and stole the still developing Dionysus from her womb > then sews Dionysus into his thigh and from there, Dionysus was born > he was raised in the East and returns to Thebes - Orphic version > son of Zeus and Persephone > Dionysus could have been ruler of the cosmos if he overthrew Zeus > except the Titans killed Dionysus > Athena saves the heart which Zeus swallows and then impregnates Semele > Dionysus is then reborn from Semele > Zeus then blasts the titans into ashes > humans were then born from the ashes therefore contain a divine element and a special relationship to Dionysus > Dionysus suffers as a human, though a god o Dionysus and the Bacchae - mask and wine “enthusiasm” > to be entheos “god-within” > possessed, ecstatic, inspired > god in disguise - two level plot > surface: community (aetiological myth) > meta-theatrical: Pentheus, wrong initiation > Pentheus = normal order > can’t recognize value to order of complementary disorder of letting go and dissolving boundaries in liminality > hyper cultural - Dionysus is non-normal, liminal but balanced mix of nature and culture Nov 7, 2012 o Prometheus in Hesiod - integrates human beings into the world of the gods > religious and cultural integration - defines human existence for the gods > sacrifice, fire, technology, gender - Pandora completes our mortal nature > new lifestyle: disease, toil, scarcity, conflict > sexual reproduction into generations was introduced > humans are no longer immortal and all male > Prometheus made us mortal, Zeus made us sexual - need for paternity and marriage marks fall into nature - succession of gods stop so there is stability in the cosmos - society is not culture per se but rather a mediation between nature and culture > result is a golden mean: just enough culture and just enough nature Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > too much culture  gods > too little culture  animals - the story how the universe or cosmos came to be and how Zeus brought order to it and made the world semi-safe for mortals - Prometheus story: the final “apportionment” of status > separation of human beings from gods, the final element of order and structure of “life as we know it” > at beginning only “Chaos” > all was too mixed up together for anything to be itself, now things are separated out and orderly o Zeus outside of Hesiod - THE god of order and paternity > sanctity of oaths, kinship, guest-host relations, law-court cases and verdicts, kingship - sky god, weather god - Olympics o Hesiod’s Theogony - explains genealogy of the gods and how Zeus came to power - Zeus is like a liminal figure in this story ONLY - creates the margins by establishing structure and order - story of how the cosmos came to be - Hesiod chooses genealogy, elaborates upon gender contrast, by dramatizing it > give him a logic for thinking about other differences > if going to think structurally, needs a known contrast that elaborates easily into complexity > uses it to tell us a story about the events whose sequence and end-state will explain the STRUCTURE of the world contemporary with his audience > mixes Greek tradition with ANE materials > chooses to tell a story by focusing on a series of unique, non-repeating events to tell how a system finally became established, rather than describing the features and explaining the causes in a general, repeating, abstract way - what system does Hesiod explain? > the system of the gods, well-known to his audience > five generations of beings > in final generation, divinities stop being born, stop fighting, leaving cosmos settled, safe, and stable (due to Zeus) o Succession in the Theogony - from female to male, from maternity to paternity, from force to craft, from nature to culture - first two generations simply appear, shapeless, undifferentiated, third generation contrasts appear > early on: females predominate > second generation: contrasts appear > some sexual reproduction > Chaos (Erebos, Dark & Night): difference between day and night > via sex, these yield Bright Sky and Day > Gaia (=Earth) yield Ouranos (=Heaven) as contrast to own self > Heaven (=Sky, Ouranos, Uranus)  Cronos  Zeus - Generation 1: Chasm (Chaos) - Generation 2: Earth (Gaia), Tartarus, Eros) - Generation 3: from Chasm: Erebos, Night, Bright Air, Day; from Gaia: Heaven, Sea; from Gaia and Heaven: Ocean, Titans (include Cronos), monster figures (Hundred Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 Handed Ones, Cyclopes); from blood (slaying of Ouranos) mixed with Earth: Furies (Erinyes), Giants, Tree Nymphs from genitals themselves; mixed with sea water: Aphrodite (transformation of male reproductive principal) > BUT Heaven give inadequate paternity, he hates his kids > Heaven gets a C for Paternity > good at getting partner pregnant, bad at birth and growth of offspring, keeps them incorporated in female principle > Gaia creates sickle for her children, Cronos takes the sickle and kills Ouranos - Generation 4: from Cronos and Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, Zeus > Cronos gets a B for Paternity > good at getting partner pregnant, good at birth > bad at growth of offspring; keeps them incorporated n MALE principle, therefore an over-correction of predecessor > Cronos hears a prophecy that one of his children will overthrow him > resolves to swallow each of his children once they are born; swallows all of them but Zeus as he is tricked by Rhea > Zeus feeds Cronos a stone, who then vomits up the stone and children, somehow losing his power > Zeus takes the stone and sets it in the ground at Pytho (Delphi) > Zeus frees the Cyclopes who gives Zeus his thunderbolt/lightning > contrasts to Ouranos: Ouranos acts from sheer energy and force, Cronos uses guile, oracles, and planning > for Ouranos: cosmic level of activity; for Cronos: the universe is already a social organization, namely a family > Cronos is the first “Oedipal father  prophecy that son will replace him > paradox of paternity: son makes you a father but also a rival within family - Generation 5: Paternity problems Solved > Zeus get an A for Paternity 1. Bests Cronos and Titans, then a monster 2. Makes some marital arrangements > conquers Titans in “Titanomachy” and banishes them to Tartarus > Tartarus and Gaia produce the snake-monster Typhon > this is like not having a father as Tartarus is not really male, this brings back the threat of fatherlessness ruling the cosmos > Zeus establishes self by establishing paternity > Zeus shows political side by arranging marriages - Zeus’ offspring > has paternal relations with Cronos’ children, married to Hera (sterile marriage), produces Persephone with Demeter > Zeus also marries Titans and children, and Oceanids > by Leto, Zeus father Artemis and Apollo “perfect children” > Metis was Zeus’ first wife, Zeus + Metis = Sovereignity > Metis was destined to bear clever children and possibly a son to overthrow Zeus, so Zeus swallowed her, Athena is born from Zeus’ head (only motherless child, has male/female traits, warrior/craft goddess) > provokes Hera to have a fatherless child in retaliation  Hephaestus (god of blacksmiths), lame in legs, incomplete male > Athena and Hephaestus are complementary > Zeus incorporates maternity into his paternity, unlike Cronos, Zeus swallows the mother to bear the child himself and to prevent further conception and therefore avoids the fate of Cronos as replacement god is never conceived Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > Zeus’ apportionment of honours and his order and structure of cosmos becomes permanent (NB: used force and crafty intelligence) > Ouranos: cosmic, Cronos: social & family, Zeus: social & family & political (nature  culture) - paternity is seen as a cultural construction > culture = the human difference - Result of Hesiod’s treatment > a universe that is orderly, whose order is held stable by violent force, but these violent forces are restrained by politics and the rules of the normal social order Nov 21, 2012 o Hesiod’s Works and Days - Myth of Five Ages comes right after Prometheus and Pandora > a myth that explains LAWKI > theme of hubris and justice - Five Ages of Humans > Gold, Silver, Bronze, Heroes, Iron (life as we know it) > Heroes age seems to be better than bronze age o Archaic Greek Values - Positive: dike, sophrosune > justice, right, fairness in verdicts and distribution (dike) > moderation, self-control, self-restraint (sophrosune) > role in community is autonomous - negative: adikia (injustice), hubris (opposite of sophrosune) > high handed arrogance, violence, violent insult, over-assertion of personal honour, all kinds of excessiveness generally - ate means delusion, mistake, error, bad choice > “but only when he has suffered does the fool learn this” - bronze age: loved the groans and violence (hubris) of war - Heroes age: more just and good - Iron Age: mixture of good/bad - What does the time series mean? > series of events vs structure of LAWKI - What does time sequence mean? > progressive decline from the golden age - the chronological order is Gold, Silver, Bronze, Heroes > but Gold is to Silver as Heroes is to Bronze > Iron is a mixture of what each pair differentiates, namely dike and hubris, good and bad > structural analysis of this myth will show that it is really about explaining the Age of Iron - What Readers must bring to text: Kings > in 7 century BCE town dwelling elites > polis is forming from villages > agora: marketplace and meeting place > settled disputes: evolving legal and judicial > “bribe-devouring”  mediators > monarchs were local big-men, chieftains > no command/control authority, no one above kings - what readers must bring to text WARRIORS Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > in 7th c BCE town dwellers, kings, farmers > no signs of war for centuries > prehoplite times > communities still growing > warriors not culturally relevant to audience’s own real-life experience, but knew them from epic poetry - what readers must bring to text: PERSES > Hesiod’s brother, disputing inheritance > Works and days is addressed to Perses > Hesiod tells him to stay away from hubris and pursue justice > don’t bribe kings > morphs W&D into more general statement about society and the gods from a personal grievance - two kinds of strife > good strife: competition, self-respect, struggle with nature for successful farming > bad strife: fighting, disagreement caused by hubris - three part story > first two parts are purely mythical and form structure that explains final part which is life as we know it > Hesiod analyses LAWKI in new terms (dike and hubris) by renovated old ANE myth of metals > dike and hubris: new cultural relevance to polis - story describing structure > picture of the social world as a whole, a unity > kings, farmers: diff status, honor > Hesiod’s picture brings them together > shows inter-connection and the principle of dike/hubris - 3 categories of reality > Gold/Silver: closest to gods, most honourable  current religious status: “spirits of/under the earth” > Bronze/Heroes: war > Iron: farming & family life, LAWKI - 6 categories help us map out the system of contrasts between the five ages > category of reality: posthumous fate > dike vs hubris > religion > social function >food and eating - Category of reality: posthumous fate > gold/silver: promoted from mere mortals to daemons > bronze/heroes: no promotion, just anonymous death in Hades or Isles of Blesses > iron: LAWKI (regular death) - mistranslation of the Bronze age > should be “in no way similar to” the Silver race - silver’s only role is to be opposite to gold > they are kingly in refusing to accept Zeus’ sovereignty, shows own ambition to rule > Zeus is god of dike, punishes/negates them > no part in military activities or farming > king’s role: religion and verdicts - warriors mediate between Kings and Farmers > bronze/heroes mediate between gold/silver and iron Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 - in order to talk about relationship in LAWKI between kings and farmers > dike/hubris describes and motivates relations between these two and among members of each > warriors link hubris of farmer to hubris of king: displays similarity in two otherwise dissimilar types of behaviour - all this to explain duality of Iron Age > no possibility of all-good Golden Age (for farmers, at least) > a mix of good/bad, dike/hubris > hubris takes over, mix is spoilt: all hubris, all the time > then both nature/culture disorganized > born with gray hair, age quickly, parental respect breaks down as do host/guest relations, all religious observance - the structure of king/farmer relations is current > so in a way gold and iron are contemporaries > bronze/iron exist only to explain the above Reality Dike/Hubri Social Religion Food Age of s Function Life Gold Daemon D King Commensali Veg, no Youth (good) ty work Silver Daemon H King (bad) Refuse to Veg, no Youth sacrifice work Bronze Hades H Warrior n/a Adult (bad) Heros Isles of D Warrior n/a Like gold Adult Blessed (good) in IB Iron LAWKI D & H farmers Sacrifice Bread, Aging meat always Dec 3, 2012 o Enuma Elish - Main Point: Marduk supreme has established order in universe (LAWKI) > compared to Zeus in his myth of sovereignty - Basic Plot > Tiamat and Apsu: primordial waters > Tiamat is motherly towards gods > Tiamat changes > Tiamat vs Marduk > Marduk creates humans and Babylon (Gate of the Gods) - Compare to Theogony > Gaia vs gods: motherly until Zeus has control then inexplicably changes and send Typhon at him > Zeus leads gods vs Titans and Giants, and enlists help of Hundred Handed Ones > Then Gaia bears Typhon because she’s angry about the Titans, she is maternal about the earlier generation at expense of latter - cultural relevance > Mesopotamian city state: 4000 – 800 BCE > culture vs nature, irrigation vs dry/flash floods > after Neolithic Revolution, gods, immanent in nature before, seem to retreat from humanity Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > new cultural relevance for myth: civic religion  elites of these irrigating societies needed a special relationship with gods, city itself as infused and suffused with the divine - was recited and perhaps acted out on Fourth Day of the New Year’s ceremony in Babylon - worshippers tap into timeless energy of Marduk’s efforts to bring order to chaos, just as they do year round hostile nature - symbolized chaotic forces with a liminal period where the ruler was humiliated and a “carnival king” was enthroned instead - creation epic as response to urbanization o Heracles - two reasons why he is interesting 1. God/man ambivalence > uniquely worshipped as a god and a “hero” in the cult of the dead > hero: a dead mortal whose tomb is given cult 2. Antiquity: hunter, super-local > lionskin is prehistoric >shaman: skill with animals > anxiety expressed in ambivalence of his violence > antiquity, super local: variant traditions and lost epics - difficulty finding sources that tells his full story > must be pieced together from various stories and art o Main things to know about Heracles - apotheosis and bow > death at hands of Nessos & Deaneira > pyre > Poas and Philoctetes, Trojan War - iconography: lion skin and club > Heracles kills the lion of Kithairon and wears its skin - 12 labours, as piece of his strength/suffering complex (Heracles becomes a liminal character) > Nemean Lion: Eurytheus makes a bronze jar to hide in when Heracles comes back from his labours > Larnaean Hydra: hydra is the offspring of Typhon, Iolaus helps by burning each stump with fire to prevent the heads from growing back > Cerynitian Hind: Heracles brings it back alive > Erymanthian Boar: Heracles brings it back alive > Cattle of Augeias: has to clean out the stables by shoveling feces, it was done for pay so Eurystheus says it doesn’t count > Stymphalian Birds: Heracles chases them away > Cretan Bull: Heracles brings it back alive > Mares of Diomedes: Heracles brings it back alive > Belt of Hippolyte: the belt of the Queen of the Amazons, Hera causes a misunderstanding > Cattle of Geryon: Heracles brings it back alive, Helios gives Heracles his golden cup to help him travel , Heracles is also supposed to build two pillars at the two ends of Europe (strait of Gilbatrar) > Apples of Hesperides: Heracles travels to the land of the Hyperboreans Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > Capture of Cerberos: Cerberos is the guard dog of Hades - multi-locality - paleolithic hunting link and shamanism > shamen intervened in divine world with animal spirits on behalf of hunters > link with underworld, lion skin prehistoric to Greece, at least > “Master of Animals” - comic image of gluttonous lout, a multiform myth character - popularity - basic story > Hera hates him so she causes a lot of problems, she even sent two snakes to his crib > Heracles also kills Minyans and marries Megara, Hera strikes him mad and he kills his own children > Heracles then goes into exile and Delphi tells him to move to Tiryns and serve Eurystheus for 12 yrs or 10 labours > Eurystheus was a bad master and said that two of ten feat did not count because Iolaos heped Heracles and adds another two labours to bring total to twelve > murder another in another fit of madness and sells self into slavery > sails against Troy as King Laomedon had refused to pay after Heracles killed sea monster > marries Deianeira, who kills him by accident > Heracles wants to be burned on a pyre, cremated to get free of the pain of the poison on his ksin > Poias lit the pyre for him and is gifted with bow and arrows > Heracles is lifted up on a cloud to join gods and marries one of Hera’s fatherless daughters - Heracles is compared to Gilgamesh and Enkidu > lot of animals in his labours Jan 8, 2012 o Homer vs Epic Tradition - Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey are just two of the epic poems that were produced - of the rest, we know only some facts and have some small quotations - epic tradition  practice as much as a tradition > carried on by oral traditions > oral bards memorize epithets and formulaic language require to recite an epic poem > practice controlled by what current generation feels is relevant > rationalization of three different kinds of story - the Iliad is the story of the Trojan war in a single one of its episodes - the Odyssey focuses solely on Odysseus > Homer decides to center it on Ithaca and expand the characters of Penelope and Telemachus o Three different kinds of myth 1. Trojan War macro-myths - include the Iliad and Odyssey - other poems were written later but drew on the same Epic Tradition as Homer - known as “The Epic Cycle” > Cypria, Iliad, Aethiopis, Sack of Ilium, Nostoi, Odyssey 2. Individual gods and heroes 3. Myths not about Trojan War or its participants Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > Heracles > Bellerophon > Meleager o Tale of Heroic Saga-style - tales about men of a certain social class (dark age warrior aristocrat) having adventures characteristic of that social class (warfare, hunting, interaction with gods), usually with some story worthy twist (monster, outrageous offense, remarkable death) - include sagas such as Perseus, Jason & the Argonauts etc > these are set a generation or two older but only the Trojan War saga was picked up by the composers of the Epic Cycle > this kind of tale accounts for the third kind of myth/story for which Epic is a source or version ex/ myth of Bellerophon is mentioned during the confrontation between Glaucus and Diomedes in the Iliad (Bellerophon used Pegasus to fly and shoot the Chimaera with arrows from above) - In the Iliad, Nestor tells the story of Polyphemus and Theseus, he is the only link between the old days when they fought monsters to present day - why is Mycenaean question vs Indo-European origins important at all? (approx 1500 BC) > Mycenaean Greece = Bronze Age, roughly 18800-1200 BC > society: centralized power like in Mesopotamia > collapsed around 1200 BC, palace and ruling class fell, leaving behind workers and outlying villages and farms > because both are sources for Epic myth and either is “origin” of Greek epic > Indo-European input is filtered by the Mycenaean Age (Bronze Age) > after fall of Mycenae myths from the old Indo-European oral tradition were localized, eventually, the old vs the older strata seemed equally old and equally true - mystery of “Proto-Indo-European” speakers > language from East to West: Sanskrit, Avestan & Persian, Hittite, Greek, Latin, Celtic - Sarpedon: Interesting figure on question of Fate > doomed to be killed in battle by Patroklos, son of Zeus > Zeus wants to save him but Hera warns him of upsetting the balance of power > Homer plays by certain, not so inscrutable rules > Gods cannot change a mortal’s fate, well, they can, but doing so would cause problems with fellow gods o Meleager and the Calydonian Boar - an instance where Homer changed local tradition of Calydon - original myth talks about a log which held the fate of Meleager (if it is burned, Meleager dies), but Homer omits that completely > in Apollodorus’ version, Meleager is killed by his mother who sets fire to the log of his fate > Homer changes this point totally when he makes Phoenix tell this story to Achilles in the Iliad - This story is noteworthy because it makes many appearances on pots - Other notable stories that appear in Ancient Greek pottery include: > Achilles killing Penthisilia before falling for her > Ajax carrying the corpse of Achilles from combat under a hail of arrow > Ajax burying his sword before falling on it after the death of Achilles, the Achaens gave his armor to the “best” of their number and chose Odyssesus over Ajax; Ajax was so overcome with resentment that he planned an attack on the army but Athena drove him mad and turned him against the cattle, after Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 recovering his wits, he killed himself > Ajax and Achilles playing knucklebones > Neoptolemos slays Priam (King of Troy) on the altar of Zeus Jan 23, 2013 o Aeschylus’ “Agamemnon” - written by Aeschylus (c525-c455) - part of the Oresteia trilogy performed in 458BC > only trilogy that survived as a trilogy - primarily a mythic treatment of Justice > huge cultural significance because a newly radical democracy in Athens had just taken power away from traditional elites and included the people in, among other things, law court juries > in Hesiod’s time a council arbitrated disputes who could be bribed (300 yrs earlier) > the law courts were introduced to replace revenge - alternation of episode and chorus - chorus in Oresteia provides the audience with explanations of the story o Oresteia: the Story of Orestes - Atreus is the father of Agamemnon - the Oresteia is part of the story of the House of Atreus - basic story is a nostos (homecoming) > a revenge story - Agamemnon returns home, victorious, from Troy with no problems compared to the other Greeks > he is killed by Clytemnestra (wife) and/or Aigisthus (cousin, wife’s lover) - Orestes avenges his father by killing Clytemnestra and Aigisthus > Orestes is then pursued by the Furies to Athens where he get ritually purified of matricide and the Furies become the Euminides (“Kindly Ones”) - why did Orestes kill Clytemnestra? > because she killed his father and honor demands revenge - Why did Clytemnestra kill Agamemnon? > because he killed their daughter, Iphigeneia - Why did Agamemnon kill Iphigeneia? > because Artemis demanded her sacrifice for the Trojan War - Why did Aegisthus kill Agamemnon? > related to the House of Atreus > they were cousins, sons of brothers Thyestes and Atreus > Atreus claims the throne of Mycenae(or Argos) and banishes Thyestes > Atreus then recalls Thyestes as if for reconciliation but for revenge for sleeping with Atreus’ wife and Atreus feeds Thyestes his own children > Thyestes is avenged when Aegisthus kills Agamemnon and attempts to regain the kingdom - Agamemnon’s death was caused by many factors > revenge from Aegisthus and Clytemnestra and punishment from the gods for sacrilege in Troy > Aeschylus wants to emphasize justice - House of Atreus and Oresteia in context of Epic: > Hesiod had inserted Age of Heroes among the metals > said they were admirable but killed each other off - Summary of Oresteia Jasmine Ho Lecture Notes Classics 2200 > Agamemnon: Ag is killed by Clytemnestra > Libation Bearers: Orestes kills Clytemnestra and Aegisthus but acquires Furies (Erinyes) > Eumenides: the problem is solved Jan 28, 2013 o Agamemnon - it evokes the myth but does not explicitly state the relevant aspects (as the original audience knows the story) like Iphigeneia - the chorus is anticipating the future, common theme throughout the play - justice is also a major theme > justice as divine retributive is a big addition Aeschylus makes to this myth > Zeus says that Aegisthus brought upon his own death by killing Agamemnon and sleeping with Clytemnestra > Hermes was sent to warn Aegisthus but was ignored - chorus tells story of Agamemnon sacrificing Iphigeneia (his daughter) o Structure of Agamemnon - Prologue: spooky mood of unease, watchman speaks, signal comes (signal flares) - Parados: Trojan War justified, although Iphigeneia unsettles the chorus > the chorus are old people > chorus talks about omens (ferocious birds killing a pregnant rabbit) > goes on to tell the story of Agamemnon sacrificing Iphigeneia > Artemis is holding back the wind which prevents Agamemnon from sailing to Troy until Agamemnon sacrifices his daughter > Agamemnon “put on the y
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