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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2200
Aara Suksi

October 4, 2010 Creation and Evolution of the Universe Hesiods Theogony Boetia ancient city Theogony - theo (god) + gone = birth of the gods - comogony = birth of the world order o creation of the world - divind dynastic succession - elaborate hymn to zeus o how zeus comes into power and how he establishes himself as the everlasting ruler - oral epic tradition - near eastern influence o eg: enuma elish/eic of creation - genealogy of the Gods - how the world/was passed down through the different generations of Gods - epics were passed down as songs The Ancient Greek Idea of the Universe (p.63) - Believed the world to be flat - tartarus = the worst part of the underworld o underworld of the Greeks = for everyone; good + bad Features of the Breek Oral Epic Tradition - dactylic hexameter - repetition o allows composer to stress on a certain fact + lead up to next point - formulae and epithets o characters have specific adjectives describing the characters eg. Zeus = thunder gatherer o formulae = set words / phases that can be used in a number of situations o building block to keep he narrative going - ring composition o beating around the bush o takes you back to the point o another way for the poet to think up about what to write about next in the story - catalogues o display the poets ability to remember o using all /many names of useless ppl to describe something - invocation of Muses of other god o getting the stories from a divine source o Gods have inspired the poet > not just making it up Muses Zeus + Mnemosyne (Memory a titan ) = 9 muses - signified that memory = very important in oral tradition - they usually dance around the alter of Zeus in his honor - muses lived on Mt. Helikon where there is a sacred spring Gustave Moreau > Hesiod and the Muses - Hesiod is given a crown - Hesiods encounter with the Muses = gives credibility to the story - Gets the word music from muse - Their role is to inspire poets + kings + etc - Muses perform dances on Mt. Olympus to entertain the Gods - Hesiod claims that the muses taught him speech o Inspire = breath into someone o Breathed inspiration to Hesiod through a reed - Starts out with the Muses saying that they tell great lies + truths > doesnt mean the poem is true or is it? - Cronion = son of Cronus - Muses bless the Kings the power of good speech (counsel, speeches, etc) - How everything comes from Zeus The Beginning - first only chaos (absolute nothingness) - then gaia, tartaros, eros (desire) o the 4 = primary beings o eros = divine cosmic principle that sets everything in motion (has everyone mating with everyone) - gaia = ouranos (sky, heaven), mountains, sea by asexual reproduction o gaias body = earth - mating w. ouranos = 12 titans, 3 cyclopes, 4 hundred handed ones - ouranos does not allow them to be born o he feared + loathed his children The Second Generation (Titans) - Gaia makes a sickle (from her own body) > used in an agricultural implement - Gives it her last born Kronos (the youngest) for him to castrates and overthrows his father Ouranos o Resulting in Kronos = Kind of the titans - From Ouranos blood and genitals = furies, giants, Aphrodite o Furies = goddesses who avenge crimes against someone in the family o Genitals themselves + sea foam of the ocean = Aphrodite (born of the sea foam ) > born near island of Cyprus (cyprians = epithets = adjectives commonly used to the goddess) > closely tied to Eros > powers of sex + love + flirtation = deceit The Third Generation- Kronos + sister Rheia mate = Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, Zeus - Kronos swallows them (so that none of his kids will overthrow him) o Saturn Latin name/Roman name = Kronos - Rheia tricks Kronos and hides baby Zeus in a cave on Crete (usually where magical things happen) o W. help of her mother Gaia - Gives Kronos a stone in swaddling clothes - Zeus grows up + overthrows his father > tricking him into vomiting up his siblings o W. help of wood nymphs - The stone (omphalos) is placed at Pytho (Delphi) o Delphi thought to be the center of the Earth (where the two eagles land) o Omphalos = naval of the world - Hestia = first + last born Zeus Establishes his Rule - fights many large battles + coming out as victor - frees Cyclopes + hundred handed ones (imprisoned by Ouranos) o gain allies - Cyclopes give Zeus lightning bolts - Punishment of Prometheus and eventual glorification of Herakles - Titanomachy (Battle of the Titans)
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