MID TERM SSC 2036 MONDAY, 22
Day 3 – Wednesday July 10, 2013
• Body Contact sports – Wrestling, Boxing and Pankration
o No weight classes no rounds
o Different age categories (youth, Adult and beadles)
• Pale (wrestling). Best of five falls, defeat admitted by raising a finger
o Moves – Snap Mare, throwing over the hip. Grabbing the legs.
• Winged figure, goddess of victory Nike
• The Skamma – a pit dug in the stadium, which is filled with soft sand. At
Olympia, it was outside the temple of Zeus. Palaestraeha – training centers may
have had 2 pits
• Boxing and the Pankration
o Boxing (Pyx) – bloody, painful and deadly. Rules – No wrestling, no low
blows, no hand wraps from pigs (Himantes)
o Training equipment – Ear Guards, Heavy Bags? Spheres or hard himantes.
• Polydeuces and King Amykos –
• Pankration – boxing and wrestling combined. Means “allpowerful”
o Rules – no biting or eye gouging
• Ponos – ‘Pain’ good pain though, like a post workout pain that’s a good feeling
Day 4 – Thursday July 11, 2013
• Votive offerings, relating to a vow, show us artistic aspects of society
• Athletics in art – mattered more to them than to us, aristocrats tended to value
athletics, therefore wealthy athletes could commission art.
• Horseback Race – 2horse chariot, side by side increased difficulty of
• Cart Mule Racing – added to horse chariot race. Was removed b/c it wasn’t
graceful enough to watch, also couldn’t create a lineage as mules are sterile
• Other events – Singing with Kithara, similar to a guitar. Acting, poetry, painting
• Olympics – nonathletic competitions
o Herald and trumpet – winners get to announce the games
• Athletics: Training for war? Could be on mid term.
o First Olympics were war games held in an atmosphere of forced peace.
Used games to prepare for battle. Physically, mentally and spiritually
prepare for war
• Panhellenic Games
• Early Greek Athletic Competitions
o Foundation Legends, Emerging Polis, Colonization, Interpolis
Sanctuaries, tyrants and patronage
• 4 PAnhellenic Games
o Periodos (period)
o 4 Year cycle
• Olympic Games
o Founded 776
o Held near Elis, every 4 Years in August or September
o In honor of Zeus
o Prize is a crown of olive leaves
• King Pelops
• The Stadium Olympics
• The Pythian Games
o Founded 586
o Held at Delphi every four years in honor of Apollo
o Winners get a crown of Laurel Leaves
• Isthmian Games
o Panhell in 580, held near Corinth
o Every other year in honor of Poseidon
o Winner gets pine and celery wreaths
• Nemean Games
• Panhell in 573
• Held in Nemea every other year in honor of Zeus
• Winner gets a crown of celery leaves
Day 6 Tuesday July 16, 2013
• Sport can be for the pleasure of player or spectator, but Athletics is all about the
• Hunting – Greeks didn’t talk to much about hunting, more for food than sport or
• Knucklebones and dice – preferred knucklebones to dice, many children were
buried with them.
• Gambling – was shown several times in vases and in art work throughout ancient
Greece, primarily gambling was done by women and children rather than men
• Basically sport and recreation is more associated with women and children, while
athletics were left to men
• Yoyo’s and hoops, children’s games, depicts youth and beauty
• Two types of balls – 1. Leather Sphaira – means sphere, stuffed full of hair,
similar size to a baseball. 2. Follis/Folliculus – ball filled with air, usually and
• Homer, Plato; Galen – Galen was a doctor around 160 ad, in favor of ball games,
saw them as beneficial, they were cheap, fun and good for training all parts of the
body. It is democratic and helps build athleticism, very positive about ball games. Ball Games
• Sphairisterion – a place for playing ball games. Begin to see these in gymnasiums,
people had to take good care of these, but they were still viewed as children’s
• Episkyros/Ephebike – try to throw the ball to the opponent and get it across the
• Phaininda – game who’s goal was to trick your opponent by fainting a throw one
way and then throw it a different way
• Ephedrismos – Loser has to carry the winner on his back and winner has to close
his eye. Attempt to knock a rock off a wall with a throw.
• Aporrhaxis – dribbling game, count dribbles in a row, could be similar to soccer
or hacky sack, we don’t really know
• Ourania – sky game, 2 different versions. 1. Throw the ball up in the air and try to
• Athletic Complex (Gymnasion), which is comprised of three different parts 1.
Palaestra – literally means wrestling ground. There was a series of rooms
attached with a open area that these rooms surround. There open area was a
courtyard. 2. Gymnasion – shares a wall with the Palaestra. 3. Bath House –
nicer ones had large rooms with water, some had spickets that could pour out
warm water. Wasn’t necessary but was nice. Basically theyd just sit in water
up to their waist
• This is not a Stadion, which was the arena for competition while the
Gymnasion was for training
• Vitruvius, Roman architect 1 century AD. Describes ideal athletic complex,
very similar to the complex at Olympia
• Statues surrounding athletic centers include Hercules, Apollo, Eros, and Hermes
• Athletic centers were often in a park setting
• Athletic competitions became places not only to train the body, but also to train
the mind, usually for rich kids. Lots of people hang out there for extended periods
of time. Most of these young people do not work for other people, come form
family money and are generally more affluent.
Day 10 July 24, 2013
• Make notes about athletics, people who say no games, new stadiums built and/or
new competitions. Remember these for final
• Regal period, ruled by kings at this time. 753510 bc
• Romulus and Remus
• Lower class life was shit, upper class was split in 2. Senator held or had held
public office. Not allowed to have a for profit business, had lots of land and
family wealth. Equestrians –
• Leisure in ancient Rome
• UPPER CLASS – CALLED OTIUM, MEANS relaxing from work, constantly
bettering yourself July 29, 2013
• Faction – similar to a team of sorts, a group designated by colors, that the fans
cheered for. Racing teams or associations. 4 colors – blues greens reds and whites.
Enormously profitable business. Blue and greens were the most successful of the
teams. Run by multiple aristocrats due to immense cost of chariot racing. The
same four teams were in all of the games in Rome, they had branches all over
while in Greece they did it the same way as they have always done it, whoever
shows or gets invited, gets to compete.
o When Augustus came into power he bought out all four of the factions.
They all still ran the same way but were instead all owned by one man
(government). Still run by managers and staff. This made people feel like
the emperors were favoring some of the charioteers or colors and fixing
• Editor – sponsor or host of games or festivals in Rome. They had to provide the
chariots to participate in the events. Therefore business sprang up to provide the
necessary people, equipment etc to effectively run a festival or game.
• In ancient Rome there would be maximum 12 but there could also be 4 and 8.
Each faction gets the same amount of chariots.
• Auriga – Roman Charioteer. Could make a lot of money if you were successful,
but that didn’t matter to the upper class, they respected and admired them, but
they were seen as not fit to be a part of the upper class.
• Infames – lower class person whom preformed in public for money, such as
singers, actors and/or charioteers…etc. these people are not valid witnesses, their
word does not hold well with the upper class. Bankruptcy and not paying debts
put you in this group as well
• Horses – not terribly large horses but quick and agile
• Quadriga – four horse chariot race, lightweight, and agile. Main chariot race and
• Biga – two horse chariot race
• Roman Charioteers wore clothes and padding, a leather or felt helmet, leather
strips around waist and legs and a knife to cut the reigns in case of a crash
• Circus Maximus – every place where the Romans raced was called a circus as
opposed to the Greek hippodrome. The circuses were of different sizes. Always
did 7 laps regardless of the size. Circus Maximus was colossal, sat 150,000
people, and for some big races it could actually seat up to 250,000 people with
standing room. Rome only had 1 million people, meaning almost one of four
people in the city would be in the crowd.
• Roman chariot racing had a dividing line down the middle, at Circus Maximus
they had statues and shit in the middle. It was called the spine.
• End posts, where the turning point was, consisted of 3 obelisks, and would have 7
eggs and dolphins after each lap an egg would be taken down and a dolphin
would be inverted. This was a way to keep track of the amount of laps completed.
• There were 24 races a day max.
• Sparsores – means to sprinkle or spray, could mean that you throw gifts to the
crowd. Most people suspect, however, that it is something else • Hortatores – a person who encourages.
• Prizes – only the winner, not the team or manager, gets a palm branch and a
wreath as well as a victory lap, but the big prize was money. If the charioteer is a
slave he does not get to keep it, if hes free he gets to keep 25,000 sesterces on
average. Sesterce is about 2025 dollars. Which makes it half a million to win a
race. If you were a slave you could work your way up to buy yourself out of
• In between races there were riding tricks and aerobatic type events
• Fans were quite loyal to the teams, not as much to the players, which was frowned
upon by the aristocrats
July 30, 2013
• Ancient attitudes towards the Munus
o Pagan – contemptuous, want to have sex with them, use them but care for
them, adore them but allow great brutality to happen to them. Its both
sides of the coin, love them and hate them, adore/cherish them but abuse
o Christian – thought it was a waste of life/time, wasteful but saw admirable
qualities in the martyrdom of the gladiators willing to accept death.
Thought it would make Christians blood thirsty and/or violent.
o Do not see an attempt to abolish it until the end of the Christian era. Both
of these groups have contemptuous attitudes toward gladiators.
• Origins – Campanians or Etruscans? Top gladiator schools were in Campania,
makes it seem like it got its start in southern Italy.
• Romans get there start in 264 BC. 3 pairs of gladiators, 6 total, for a funeral game.
By 183 BC they were up to 120 gladiators fighting in these games.
• Up until the emperors gladiatorial combat was hosted by an individual, funeral
games or for political power/exposure
• Possible motives for Munera
o Virtus – Virtue, means manliness in roman, is the almost exact equivalent
or Arete in Greek. Gladiators displayed to Romans all the possibilities of
o Humiliation – Humiliate captured opponents from war, disgrace and
degrade these men. They were slaves, criminals, lower class or prisoners
of war who the upper classes felt needed to be humiliated
o Catharsis – Purification, by confronting the thing you fear the most you
can drain away that fear, purging your system of that fear.
o Habituation – the Romans were used to it, it had become a habit, felt no
pity and began to enjoy and accept it.
• To be freed as a gladiator you must be a slave for 5 years, surviving 3 years of
gladiatorial combat, and then you can serve as just a slave. After year 5 you could
• Under Roman law all prisoners of war were considered criminals, because it was
against Roman law to fight against Rome. Hence they became a prime source for
future gladiators. Gladiatorial training schools would also scour the slave markets looking for slaves with specific skills that could be beneficial as a gladiator, but
this was far more risky.
• Ludus – training school for gladiators.
o Lanista – owner of a Ludus
o Training – exgladiators usually were the trainer (called doctor, which
o Living quarters – depends on rank. Ranging from mediocre to awful
o 4 ranks of Gladiators –
o Social bonding
• Imperial gladiators – best of the best in the empire. Two schools at first, Ludus
Magnus and Ludus Matutinus, then 2 more were added. Highest level of
gladiators came from the emperial schools.
• Costs of Munera – 400,000 HS for a small show in republican era. Limit of
200,000 HS in the imperial era. 12/13 pairs a day maximum. Average of 2050
July 31, 2013
• Editor, Advertising – paid for ads to promote event, put ads on walls for
• Rudis – wooden staff given to gladiators who won their freedom. The person
who receives the rudis