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Lecture 14

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

nd Lecture 14 Pythian Games  at Delphi – 2  Panhellenic Crown Competition Pythian Games - 2 major Panhellenic Crown Games - Held at Delphi at the sanctuary of Apollo - Held in honor of the god Apollo – son of Zeus and Leto o Favourite son of Zeus o Only god to know the will and plans of Zeus o God of Prophecy, Music and Performance - Began in 586 BCE - Started after the Olympics Delphi - Bronze Age o Bronze Age settlement with cult activity, house structures in main sanctuary, but settlement declined markedly until 875/860 BCE. o Resettlement occurs in mid-ninth century BCE o First dedication/votives in 8 century - Same historicth sequences developing in Delphi as seen at Olympia - Prior to the 8 century, we don’t have a lot of material that suggests Delphi was a Panhellenic site - Iron Age o Start of tripod dedications o Tripod corpus is smaller and less well preserved than at Olympia - But this does not mean less tripods were dedicated o At Olympia, tripods associated with western activity and not necessarily Panhellenic activity. Hence tripods dedication stopped in Olympia around 700 BCE o At Delphi, tripod dedication remained constant throughout the life of the sanctuary - Due to association of Tripod with Delphic Oracle The Pythia (Oracle) at Delphi th - Began sometime in 8 century (impossible to date). - Greeks and Foreigners came from all over to consult the oracle on important civic and personal decisions: i.e. should City X go to war? Etc. - Competed with other oracles, especially oracle of Zeus at Dodona, which gave its prophecies from the wind through the leaves of his sacred oak. - The most common form of enquiry at Delphi was either a simple statement for confirmation or refutation, or alternatives requiring the expression of a preference. Mechanics of Consulting the Pythia 1. Preliminary sacrifice outside the temple to determine of the god is willing 2. Second sacrifice inside the temple 3. Consultation of Pythia in the Adyton 4. Pythia’s reponse Amphicytonic League - Inter-State League dedicated to protecting and running sanctuary of Delphi o Conglomeration of 12 city-states - The First “Sacred War” (ca. 600-590BCE) over use of land between Delphi and the Gulf of Corinth o Amphicytonic league won and the land that was declared “property of the god” and was to remain uncultivated o Land was used for grazing and raising animals – part of Delphic industry o Sacred land was used for sacred animals that were used for sacrifice o Not 100% sure this actually happened – could have been a fictional war Amphicytonic League and Origins of the Pythian Games - Archaeological record of Second Temple of Apollo built on previous residencies of Delphi (shows displacement of local population) o Delphi was not always a sacred area, was a city state at one point - Victory of amphicytonic league  1. First chremestatic (money) games and 2. First stephanitic (crown) games - Winner receives a laurel wreath crown Events at Pythian Games - Gymnikoi Agones - Hippikos Agon - KEY DIFFERENCE from Olympic games: Mousikos agon o Apollo was the god of music and performance o Kithara (lyre) – singing competition of hymn to Apollo o Aulos (fl
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