Lecture 10, Part 1 – Spectacle and Surveillance

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2301A/B
Randall Pogorzelski

Lecture 10, Part 1 – Spectacle and Surveillance  Five Things o Authour: Michel Foucault o Title: Discipline and Punish / Surveiller et Punir: Naissance de la prison o Date: 1975, translated into English in 1977 o Location: Paris o Language: French  Basic Thesis: rupture in the 17-18 century that changed the world o Important Events:  1605-Don Quixote  First example of a modern novel  1606-Jamestown first permanent colony on the mainland  1609-Johannes Kepler publishes Laws of Planetary Motion  1610-Galileo sees the moons of Jupiter and proves the Copernican system  1611-King James Bible  1616-Shakespeare dies  1620-Mayflower  1641-Descartes’ Meditations on a First Philosophy  1651-Hobbes’ Leviathan  1664-Newton’s experiments with gravity  1689-Locke’s Two Treatises of Government  1708-Jethro Tull’s seed sower  1712-Thomas Newcomen builds first commercially successful steam engine  1759-Voltaire’s Candide  1762-Rousseau’s Social Contract  1764-Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Benesana Traite des delits et des peines  1765-James Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny automates weaving  1775-Watt’s steam engine  1776-American Declaration of Independence  1787-Bentham’s Panopticon  1789-Bastille  1789-Gabriel Bonnot de Mably (brother of Etienne Bonnot de Condillac) writes in On Legislation that punishment should strike the soul and not the body  1793-Eli Whitney’s cotton gin  1801-Robert Trevithick’s steam locomotive o Foucault: not just changes in society, but changes in how we look at the world  Quotes o Side by side with the spread of workshops, there also developed great manufacturing spaces, both homogeneous and well defined: first, the combined manufactories, then, in the second half of the eighteenth century, the works or factories proper (the Chaussade ironworks occupied almost the whole of the Medine peninsula, between Nievre and Loire; in order to set up the Indret factory in 1777, Wilkinson, by means of embankments and dikes, constructed an island on the Loire; Toufait built Le Creusot in the valley of the Charbonniere, which he transformed, and he had workers' accommodation built in the factory itself); it was a change of scale, but it was also a new type of control. The factory was explicitly compared with the monastery, the fortress, a walled town; (142)  Pointing out that labour was becoming a new way of life  Industry was a different way of life, self-contained and strictly organized way of life o One should not forget that, generally speaking, the Roman model, at the Enlightenment, played a dual role: in its republican aspect, it was the very embodiment of liberty; in its military aspect, it was the ideal schema of discipline. The Rome of the eighteenth century and of the Revolution was the Rome of the Senate, but it was also that of the legion; it was the Rome of the Forum, but it was also that of the camps. Up to the empire, the Roman reference transmitted, somewhat ambiguously, the juridical ideal of citizenship and the technique of disciplinary methods. (146)  18 century, when the American and French Revolutions were happening based on political Rome  But also based on the Roman Army  Reason the Romans were successful was because of the organization of the Roman Army  Organized and disciplined  Democracy of republican Rome was instilling the organization if the army into society o The organization of a serial space was one of the great technical mutations of elementary education. It made it possible to supersede the traditional system (a pupil working for a few minutes with the master, while the rest of the heterogeneous group remained idle and unattended). By assigning individual places it made possible the supervision of each individual and the simultaneous work of all. It organized a new economy of the time of apprenticeship. It made the educational space function like a learning machine, but also as a machine for supervising, hierarchizing, rewarding. (147)  Organization of serial space  Two halves of education: students learning and students being judged, organized, etc.  Education as a machine  Rational and efficient that produces learning, surveillance and grades  Education not just about learning, but also discipline o The chief function of the disciplinary power is to 'train', rather than to select and to levy; or no doubt to train in order to levy and select all the more. It does not link forces together in order to reduce them; it seeks to bind them together in such a way as to multiply and use them. Instead of bending all its subjects into a single uniform mass, it separates, analyses, differentiates carries its procedures of decompositio
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