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Lecture

Greek History

8 Pages
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Department
Classical Studies
Course Code
Classical Studies 2302A/B
Professor
David Lamari

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Description
CS 2300: Sources; Greek history Sources – discuss with a picture of a pentathlon on it (one year before he was born) 700 430 1 – 1 430 700 (1 year after Christ birth) 430 BC: before christ – 430 BCE – before common era AD 430 – 430 CE – common era 100 – 1BC = 1 century BC second century = 101 - 200 -in class – counting down The Ages of Greek History 3000 – 1200 BC: Minoans/Mycenaeans 1200 – 750 BC: Dark Age 750 – 480: Archaic Age 480 – 323 BC: The Classical Age 323 – 30 BC: The Hellenistic Age *have to know what events occurred in which age Outline of Greek History – Romans took over everything. Their moto was empire without limit. Greeks started around Delphi/Olympia/Athens – but there were Greeks in North Africa, France, Sprain, Cyprus – all over. Palace Cultures (Bronze Age) 3000 – 1200 BC Minoan and Mycenean – not Greek – spoke a language like Greek but the culture isn’t close to Greek culture – we refer to them as Minoan and Mycenean. No literature survives – destroyed 1200 BC. There is a central area and all the people are beheld to the king – pay taxes, bring food etc. Great palaces exist here – shortly after they get rid of kings/absolute monarchs Traits of Greeks – didn’t like the idea of one human being dictating how humans should behave/live their life. The fact that they have palaces makes them “not Greek”. Bronze Age/Palace Culture: 3000 - 1100 BC Minoan and Mycenean civilizations No literature survives Destroyed 1100 BC -wiped out along with most of eastern Mediterranean – disaster – these 2 cultures disappeared -greeks remember them because of the culture that arose -great men existed – only transmitted through mouth but they remembered them -palaces remained as a testimony to this civilization -heros arose – greek myths are formed by these mysterious cultures - the Greeks cared about this - Minoans on crete and mycenean on the part Greece on the Meditteranean -how did they influence they Greeks? Dark Age or Iron Age: 1100-750 BC; Homer -after that collapse enter the Dark Age -writing is lost/architecture/science/communication/knowledge with the outside world is lost -population lost (66%) -either died or fled looking for a better world -Greece is plunged into a black pit with no outside world -singer Homer – created songs and would travel around – people listened to him sing about this era -Greeks born in this time period 1200 – 750 BC -nomadic existence, small clans (brother/grandpa etc) -stayed in one place for a couple of months Greek Geography Polis (pl poleis) -central area was called a Polis -there were hundreds of Polis -polis was approx 10 000 people who were completely independent of any other polis -own calendar/currency/holy days/laws etc -Greece is so mountainous – many rivers it was hard to get communities together -werent completely independent – had the same language -Persian invasion was when they decided to get together and unite – to stand against the king to resist a tyrant (Archaic Age) The Archaic Age: 750-479/480 BC -period where we begin to understand Greek culture -thousands of small towns organized as a small fortified area on a hill -no houses; few live here -temple/some small houses – the people that live here live outside the walls on farms -if they have to sacrifice or legal things they will go into the area -it was a fortified place they considered a shrine – religious centre; otherwise they leave each other alone -all of a sudden stops, Greeks don’t want to make a federate nation of Greeks -never banded together to make a large Greek nation – there was no Greece in the sense of a united group of people -they always remained independent citizens who had a central area that they were connected to -proud that nobody outside their community could tell them what to do -nobody was above the law or citizen Colonization: 750 – 550 -tyrants get things done – maximize resources – but Greek didn’t want this -quickly, the Greek world was over populated – didn’t make the best use of their farmland -began settling in other parts of the world (italy/Africa/venesia) -they still maintained their culture – didn’t get absorbed Tyranny/Revolts 509: Athens becomes a democracy -greeks shared the belief that it was shameful to have an absolute ruler -greeks believed the kings should obey the law – kings not above the polis -famous polis > Athens – decided they believed every citizen is as good as any other -everybody should be treated exactly the same -how do we decide whos going to be our ruler? -if everybodys going to be the same you can pick them at random -everybody should be involved in the polis – all good to make the decisions -if you have to go to trial – randomly pick your neighbours and they will decide (no judge or legal expert) -Sparta went another direction – all polis had in common that they decided what they would be – military master piece, Athens wanted to be free open culture -polar opposite but similar because both insisted they wouldn’t let others tell them what to do -real Greeks first appear in the Archaic Age Classical Era: 479-323 -150 years invent every branch of knowledge known – history, science, lyric poetry, theatre – explodes -parthenon – gret architecture 480-479 BC: Great Persian Invasion -thermopylae – Hellenic -greeks face them down -famous battle of Spartans (300 massacred) -480 – Greeks defeated the Persians – gave the Athenians an enormous amount of confidence - ‘Hellenic’ -Greeks didn’t call themselves Greek – wasn’t their name – the Romans found them and called them Greeks -werent greeks but the romans thought they were and it stuck -they call themselves Hellenic -when they defeat the Persians they say to themselves we’re something special – oppose the tyrant they are not ike barbarians – special gift – great pride – begin to say they had a bond that others don’t -they were free – Hellenic – and everybody else wasnt 460-404: the Peloponnesian War: Athens and Sparta -they distrust one an other and spend close to 60 years in a deadly war with each other -2 polis dragging the Greek world into a pointless war that spells the end of everything -left so many scars that when Alexander the Great (not Greek – Massedonian) -him and his father brought their armies into Greece they welcomed them – somebody that would bring peace Alexander the Great conquers Persia -welcomed him as their ruler so that war would end -323 is the death of Alexander the Great -enter the Hellenistic Era hellenic = greek Hellenistic = era of ppl that weren’t truly Greeks Hellenistic Era: 323-30 196: Rome frees Greece -Greek life -Hellenistic -> Alexander takes over all of the Persian Empire and he insists everybody he conquers (wants a museum/gymnasium/theatre) -everybody begins to learn Greek, do sports, music, study Greek art -don’t feel comfortable
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