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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2700A/B
Les Murison

-differences in temperature are reflected in differences in density (hotter the thinner, colder the denser…but water expands, it is not as dense) -water can be observed as a vapour when hot and as a solid when cooled -Respiration – when we breathe out we breathe out warm air and cold air is drawn into the body through pores on chest. When you breathe in cold air, warm air is expelled through pores in chest…bathtub would have disproved this (couldn’t breathe and there would be bubbles) -scientific inquiry is tucked away. It is only a subordinate part of the branch of philosophy (science wasn’t studied for its own sake. Details were made up to fit with each other….information was suppressed) -Pythagoreans – followers of the philosopher Pythagorean (discovered the existence of rational numbers…he said the world was made up of numbers and were building blocks of the world). There are patterns in numbers. Irrational number – decimals never end. A number which can’t be expressed as two integers. This was suppressed they didn’t want to deal with the questions -in ancient medicine this is the way they worked – built up from the bottom. Philosophy was anti- materialistic. Human curiosity and spiritual ideas were the most important things. Pursuit of material possession leads to unhappiness. They taught material advantage lead to being unhappy -in Greece they had the concept of Hubris, which is a religious idea meaning insolence. It’s the concept that you should do things (do things you aren’t supposed to do. Be offensive to gods in some way or another). Nemeses and retribution (get you or ancestors). There comes the idea that there are things people shouldn’t know about -after year 400 there is need for hard labour - Peloponnesian war (Athens vs Sparta) - there were a lot of slaves therefore they decided certain jobs were meant for certain people (Gentlemen didn’t do dirty jobs…this is an aristocratic idea and attitude). There is a voidance of practical ideas. Eratosthenes said people used things for entertainment rather than practical use -there is no experimentation (especially laboratory investigations) – Greeks didn’t take nature apart. They were good at naked eye astronomy (they are a natural phenomenon…you good just look at it and make a theory based on what you saw…they didn’t pick it apart. They were tied with basic processes and definition (geometry for example…there is no versatility and exploration of other concepts) -they didn’t do anything about physical quantities – are mental abstractions and artificial concepts derived from experiment and they can be expressed in mathematics and definition and can be used as tools and implements in investigations of physical realities – multiply distance using time (how fast is this chariot going…an exact speed was never derived). There was no means of measurin
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