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October 17 2013.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2700A/B
Les Murison

October 17 2013 -ox cart with horns and roman cart called a plowstron were almost identical – It had iron tires on them, and there was no lubrication (problem in ancient world). If wheels were going too fast the axle would burst into flame, so there were people standing around with buckets to cool off the axle/wheel combo - Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of cereal grain (or other crop) from the scaly, inedible chaff that surrounds it. It is the step in grain preparation after harvesting and before winnowing, which separates the loosened chaff from the grain. -Antikythera mechanism - designed to calculate astronomical positions (sun, moon and other heavenly bodies like planets). Found in 1900-1901 from the Antikythera wreck, off south coast of Greece. Sponge divers found the depth at around 60ft. Found on Island of Antikythera. Statues in hold of ship found. The device was inside of a box with gears and cogwheels. Could not open it, they just took x-ray pictures. We think it was used sometime 70-60BC (1 century BC). -there is an anti-practical bias in philosophical writings – people were more interested in toys than useable machines. Interested in theory not practice. Machines for entertainment were more written about. -next to stone, clay is the next obvious example of material for human ingenuity -to make clay survive fire needs to be used (if not it will disintegrate) – therefore any clay before middle paleolithic age, clay cannot be found. This is when man started to utilize fire PURPOSLEY (hay day of Neanderthal people). They learnt how to start fires and they used it for heating and cooking (easier to digest meat). They began to take animals apart (hide for clothing). We get pots and containers being made – not just a bonfire, but a kiln or oven (for baking clay) -artist endeavours seem to proceed practical uses. The earliest known clay objects are figurines of animals and humans. Bricks and other things come later (they came before pots) -upper paleolithic (fully modern humans) – in western Europe is a place in southern part of Czech Republic at Dolní Vĕstonice(investigated in 1925). They found five huts, four were large (50x20ft) and a smaller hut, 85m away from other huts on hill, cut into the hill and sloped down. It was made of stones and clay (clay held stones together). This was around 25,000bc. It wasn’
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