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September 26 2013.docx

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2700A/B
Les Murison

September 26 2013 -gauge for trail track – 4 ft 8.5 inches -when they dug foundations of road they didn’t use the stuff they found on sit to build foundation of road – Roman -iron slag – good solid like mass when it cools and dries and rusts (concrete like mass) -off to side there were drainage ditches and foot paths – main traffic (carriages and armies used main part of road and donkey, mules and locals used side of road) -excavating now is difficult to get to road – covered and soil and roads have moved - roads on a hill may be built on a slope so drainage can go down the hill – along the river valley roads went very high up because roads went with contour lines, there were no need for bridges and easier to deal with and drains better higher up -North Africa there are naturally hard surfaces – no paving stones – first large scale building was the Via Appia and in places in about 10 roman feet – and could carry about two carriages (close to 3m). As you approach Rome roads gets bigger (9-10m, boarders and footpaths would add 1- 1.5m more on each side). On mountain sides there was slow working, traffic and it was very light. ROMAN NUMBER SYSTEM and SURVEYING -Babylonians had couple signs: one looked like nail (number 1) and the flying wedge (10). The one can also be used positionially for 60 (sexagesimal numbers) – i.e. clocks, lines in longitude and latitude -Babylonians calculated a lot of the things in 60s (i.e. circle) -they decided they needed to fill the position of unfilled numbers – i.e. 60x60 and then they eventually made a sign for 0 -Minoans (simple systems – most people did calculations in tens) oo ll – (221) – they had elaborate series of fractions. Circle (that looked like compass) was thousands -Greeks had two ways of writing numbers – based on alphabet (2 alphabets in Greece at time – initially it was all capital letters – 27 then and 24 standardized) – 27 letters they had originally – first 9 letters (1-9) second line (10-99) last line was the hundreds. A (1 row) then I (2 row) then rd R (3 row). In order to get thousands you would go back to one and put a tick in front of it. To make it big you would write an M in front of it (Myriad = 10,000 – also extremely great number) -Archimedes – greatest mathematician of ancient world – doing geometric calculus (next person after him was Newton) he tried to make a calculation of how many grains of sand were in the universe – he also used powers -Greeks had fractions – like us ‘vulgar fract
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