Class Notes (810,822)
Canada (494,262)

Introduction Notes

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2800A/B
David Lamari

Introduction Invasion of the Celts - The Language of England • English language is not native to England - sometime in the first millennium B.C., Celts invaded England and spoke Celtic. • Language broke into Gaelic (Ireland and Scotland) and Britannic Celtic (Wales) • Fifth century A.D., Britannic Celts from Wales returned to Northwestern France (now called Brittany) and speak Breton The Romans Arrive in Britain (43 B.C. to A.D. 410) • Romans tried to conquer Britain in 55 B.C., conquered Britain in A.D. 43 • Britain remained a Roman province for 400 years and imposed Latin on English • Two languages prevailed during this time: Celtic and Latin • A few Latin words from this period remain in our language today • Wine (vinum) • Mile (milia passum - a thousand paces) Camp (castra) - Dorchester, Winchester, Colchester, Manchester • The Angles, Saxons and the Jutes (A.D. 449 - 900) • Roman troops withdrew from Britain in the early fifth century, the British could not withstand the attacks from the Gaelic Scots and the Picts • Called on Germanic tribes for military assistance and the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes moved in to Britain • There were certain words in the German language that were taken from Latin.  L. vallum (fortified wall) > OE weall > wall . L vinum (wine) > OE win > wine . L calcis (lime) > OE cealc > chalk • Dialect of the Angles was the first to be used in literature and English became the term for the language and “Land of the Engles” English comes from the Anglo-Saxon word “Englisc” which comes from “Engles” - the Germanic word • for the Angles • Celtic had been abandoned throughout England by this time, although it remains in Gaelic (Ireland and Scotland) and in Welsh (Britannic Celtic), now spoken in Wales. • Cornish (Brittanic Celtic in Cornwall) died out in the eighteenth century • Old Irish (Gaelic Celtic) has gradually declined in the past few centuries. Now called Manx Gaelic, the last native speaker died in 1974. The Vikings • Invaders from Norway and Denmark • England was ruled by Danish kings from 1014-1042 and as a result many Danes and Norwegians came to live in the area. • Norse and Danish were Germanic languages, words were taken from these languages and added to the language of Britain at the time • These Scandinavian warriors descended to France and became known as the Normans - occupies Normandy The Old English Period (A.D. 450-1150) • Fully inflected language (like Modern German) - words in these languages assume different endings to indicate their grammatical functions in a sentence or to indicate person and number in the verb • Inflection has been almost completely lost in modern English. Usually only the third person singular retains inflection (the letter -s) Ex. I run, you run, he/she runs • • Had two numbers: singular and plural • Three genders: feminine, masculine, neuter • Four cases: nominative, genitive, dative and accusitive • Used to be a character called a ligature - the union of the letters a and e • Literary remains include the epic poem “Beowulf” and The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The Norman Conquest • In 1066, William, the Duke of Normandy, took over England and was crowed the King of England He brought with him many other Normans, who spoke Norman French • • Norman French developed out of the Latin spoken by the soldiers who had been stationed in Gaul (L. Gallia) • The native population abandoned the
More Less

Related notes for Classical Studies 2800A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.