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Classical Studies 2800A/B Lecture Notes - Sauerkraut, Genitive Case, Kimono

Classical Studies
Course Code
CS 2800A/B
David Lamari

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Invasion of the Celts - The Language of England
English language is not native to England - sometime in the first millennium B.C., Celts invaded
England and spoke Celtic.
Language broke into Gaelic (Ireland and Scotland) and Britannic Celtic (Wales)
Fifth century A.D., Britannic Celts from Wales returned to Northwestern France (now called Brittany)
and speak Breton
The Romans Arrive in Britain (43 B.C. to A.D. 410)
Romans tried to conquer Britain in 55 B.C., conquered Britain in A.D. 43
Britain remained a Roman province for 400 years and imposed Latin on English
Two languages prevailed during this time: Celtic and Latin
A few Latin words from this period remain in our language today
Wine (vinum)
Mile (milia passum - a thousand paces)
Camp (castra) - Dorchester, Winchester, Colchester, Manchester
The Angles, Saxons and the Jutes (A.D. 449 - 900)
Roman troops withdrew from Britain in the early fifth century, the British could not withstand the
attacks from the Gaelic Scots and the Picts
Called on Germanic tribes for military assistance and the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes moved in
to Britain
There were certain words in the German language that were taken from Latin.!
L. vallum (fortified wall) > OE weall > wall
L. vinum (wine) > OE win > wine
L. calcis (lime) > OE cealc > chalk
Dialect of the Angles was the first to be used in literature and English became the term for the
language and “Land of the Engles”
English comes from the Anglo-Saxon word “Englisc” which comes from “Engles” - the Germanic word
for the Angles
Celtic had been abandoned throughout England by this time, although it remains in Gaelic (Ireland
and Scotland) and in Welsh (Britannic Celtic), now spoken in Wales.
Cornish (Brittanic Celtic in Cornwall) died out in the eighteenth century
Old Irish (Gaelic Celtic) has gradually declined in the past few centuries. Now called Manx Gaelic, the
last native speaker died in 1974.
The Vikings
Invaders from Norway and Denmark
England was ruled by Danish kings from 1014-1042 and as a result many Danes and Norwegians
came to live in the area.
Norse and Danish were Germanic languages, words were taken from these languages and added to
the language of Britain at the time
These Scandinavian warriors descended to France and became known as the Normans - occupies
The Old English Period (A.D. 450-1150)
Fully inflected language (like Modern German) - words in these languages assume different endings
to indicate their grammatical functions in a sentence or to indicate person and number in the verb
Inflection has been almost completely lost in modern English. Usually only the third person singular
retains inflection (the letter -s)
Ex. I run, you run, he/she runs
Had two numbers: singular and plural
Three genders: feminine, masculine, neuter
Four cases: nominative, genitive, dative and accusitive
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