Classical Studies 2800A/B Lecture Notes - Q.E.D., Subtraction, Gerundive
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Used to indicate something which must be done in the future - means necessity,
passive "ought to/must be done"
English derivatives end in -um or -a (plural).
In some English derivatives the ending is dropped and in others it is changed to the
adjectival suffix -ous
• Memorandum - something which must be remembered
• Agenda - things that must be done
• Propaganda - things that must be spread.
• Agendum - something that must be done
• Legend - something that must be read
• Subtrahend - something that must be drawn from under
• Stupendous - Must be astonished at
• Tremendous - must be trembled at
• Amanda (somebody who must be loved)
• Miranda (somebody who must be looked at)
What is the difference between reverend and irreverent? Irreverent is in the present
participle. It means not revering. A reverend is somebody that must be revered.
Q.E.D. - quod erat demonstrandum - "that which must be proved"
- to do or drive
-Other vocabulary (ag-, -ig-, act-)
to do/to make
iagare, -igatus > -igate "to make" (Just like -fy, -ize and -ate which mean to make
(makes the word a verb))
• Fumigate "to make smoke"
• Litigate - "to make a lawsuit"
• Navigate - "to steer a ship"
• Castigate - "to make somebody pure"
- to set or make stand (transitive)
- statute, institute
sist/stat (ex. consist)
-to make stand still, "stop" transitive - both of these verbs describe what you're doing to
somebody else (don't memorize)
-resist, consist, assist, insistence, resistance, consistency
-the difference between the words insistence and resistance are not significant - all
words in French that were borrowed from Latin were spelled with the vowel -a-. When
introduced back into English, some were corrected and changed back to an -e- and
some were not.
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