• diarrhea (excretion too much/too thin)
• walking impaired
• digestion impaired (attractive rententive eliminative faculty impaired)
• hot dyscrasia (inflammation)
• cold dryscrasia for diarrhea)
• Excess of blood
• too much food or an injury (blow or fall)
• excess of food
L. spirtos - translation of pneuma which means air
• Mixture of air is transported through the arteries
• When arteries reach the outside of the body and widen they attract outer air into
themselves which cools the body.
• Contraction causes to expel of fumes and smoky matter which preserves the func-
tioning the heart because the heart is thought of needing a chimney
• when it meets the upper part of the spinal cord and enters the brain, he imagines
there is a net of arteries which he calls a beta miraculous
• when the air moves through this net it is refined more into physic pneuma which is
carried throughout the nerve
• Food also has an effect on our thinking and psychic functions
• Liver is the main organ of nutrition because blood is produced in the liver out of the
• If the heart suffers from improper mixture of qualities of humours than vital func-
tions will not function properly and the person will die.
• The pulse is dependant on the health of the heart because the heart has an innate
faculty to pulsate and pump a mixture of blood and air into the arteries. If the
heart suffers from an imbalance the person will die.
• each part in the body has a certain activity or function (enargea)
• Strength or weakness of this function determines health or disease.
• Functions concern movement, sensation imagination and memory
• Through the pulse you can assess the functions of the heart.
• There might be a lack of blood which shows that the liver has not changed properly
• The state of the life force which is the state of the heart which is maintenance of
the whole body which reflects the strength of the liver.
Galen's physiology • Divided the body into two main parts, the homiomeres (made of up four qualities
which are warm, cold, dry and moist) there is always a combination of warm and
cold or dry and moist.
• Each part of the body has a specific mixture and the whole body of a person is de-
pendant on his age, sex and constitution and each person has their own specific
• Our term of a person's temperament comes from this; idea of a temperament of a
person comes from.
• If a mixture is proper, we would talk about eukrasia and if we talk about a good
quality it would be dyskrasia
• Four ways qualities can be mixed wrong: too cold too moist too dry too moist. Eight
possible wrong mixtures: too warm too cold, too dry too moist, too warm too
moist, too dry too cold.
• Liver's specific function is to produce blood out of the digestive juices. Each one
uses one of the four faculties. Homiomeres are able to perform in a proper way,
particular function are the four functions ex. attraction, retentive, automative fac-
ulty, eliminative faculty which gets rid of everything that cannot be assimilated.
• Proper functions of four faculties depends on the four qualities.
• If there is a dyscrasia, then the four faculties don't function properly. The attraction
might not work anymore if there is a wrong mixture of qualities.
• Organs have specific functions that serves the whole body. Four qualities are there
to nourish homiomeres. Arrangment of organs is not right than the function might
not work properly either.
• If a mixture of the qualities in the liver is not right and the liver suffers from a cold
dyscrasia this might impair the automative faculty because it needs heat to affect
the change into a certain substance. If the liver is too cold than the automative
faculty will not function properly than the person might have thin blood and bile
might not be excreted from the liver because bile….
• Another possibility of liver disease ….
• Dyscrasia impairs the proper workings of the one of the faculties and specific func-
tions of the organs, disease is always that which impairs a function.
• Impairs that function directly. The disease then impairs the function directly. Another
reason for a loss of blood formatting function in the liver is that there is an ob-
struction in the liver. An arrangement of homiomeres that make of the liver is not
right. The liver consists of a main substance and also has vessels in it and if the
insertion is somehow faulty and the vessels in the liver are obstructed for some
reason then the liver cannot perform this function properly. This is a second pos-
sible disease for Galen and it is a disease of the organ and it is mainly obstruct-
• Galen tells us that there are four possible ways of diseases of an organ - too many
homiomeres or too many parts. ex. six fingers instead of five fingers.
• Arrangement is wrong too.
• This can happen through inflammation