• After Alexander the Great who "hellenized" the people he conquered by introducing
Greek language and culture however these people still kept their original culture
• This was the only time human dissection was performed. Vivisection might have
occurred as well to criminals who were condemned to death.
• Diocles of Carystus
• Praxagoras of Cos
• We know these names and know a little about their theories but we do not have
• This is the same for Herophilus and Erasistratos.
• It is very difficult to know what language these people used and who they wrote be-
cause others who write about them always inject their own opinions.
• Diocles wrote a book on humoral pathology…
• Praxaogoras extended the humours and also was very interested in anatomy and
distinguished vessels between veins and arteries.
• Arteries actually move and these tell us something about changes elsewhere in the
body and he noticed the pulse and thought this was a diagnostic change for
changes in the body. How are arteries connected to the pulse and to air? We also
find it in the Hippocratic Collection but it meant just windpipe.
• Arteria comes from air and the two are connected.
Herophilus and E
• Primary interest on research and they start with the assumption that the knowledge
of what is inside the body contributes to treatment.
• Interested in anatomy as well.
• Hippocratics tried to understand the body by seeing what comes out of it and by
drawing conclusions from analogies. They also compared the body to instru-
ments such as the head and the cupping instrument.
• However at this time the body is being opened and can be observed directly. One
can use discoveries and use the new knowledge for treatment.
Passage 165, Page 79
• All had certain beliefs about how diseases arrived.
• Dogma "believe" - in antiquity, these people were called dogmatists. They were
also called rationalists and in Greek Logos which means reason; used reason to
figure out causes of diseases.
• Hidden causes - things that go on inside the body like the movement of fluids
• Evident causes - causes that you can observe. These can be environmental factors
like heat or cold.
• Natural actions - physiological processes such as the pulse or how respiration
• Internal parts - the lung liver, etc. and their shapes, position and texture.
• One who is ignorant about the origin of the diseases is unable to learn how to treat
• Anatomy, antome or dissection - dissection is the literal translation of anatomy from
Greek. • All of these details of parts, the dogmatists believe you can see best while the per-
son is still alive.
• If you don't know where a part is, you can't really know how to treat the part. You
cannot even apply external remedies. Furthermore, if you see by chance a part in
a wound, you don't know if it is healthy or not because you're not sure how it
looks in health.
• In the execution of criminals, we should seek remedies for innocent people of all
• Dissection and vivisection are necessary for treatment or at least for health treat-
• H and E created human anatomy just as Aristotle created human anatomy.
• This was a time in a certain time in Greek culture
• Anatomical discoveries - they include the area of neurology. They distinguished be-
tween motor and sensory nerves and their connection to the brain. They also re-
alized the brain had a cognitive function. The Pre-Socratics also thought that the
sense organs were connected to the brain and that when there is something
wrong in the brain, sensation is blurred.
• According to both H and E, the origin of the sensory nerves are in the meninges
and the motor nerves are located in the cerebrum and in the hindbrain. The hind-
brain which is the cerebellum was the origin of the motor nerves.
• Motor nerves are voluntary.
• Motor nerves according to H are not quite distinguished between nerves, ligaments
and tendons - these distinguishes are not clear yet.
• He w