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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Hippocrates.doc

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2900
Beate Gundert

Homer • Hippocratic Collection (450 - 350 B.C.) • Physiologoi (Presocratics) - 550 - 350 B.C.) • Keen observer and can describe certain conditions and treatment required • When the physician makes a prognosis, this prepares him to find the appropriate treatment which is based on experience Scientific Medicine • Why does the disease develop the way we see it developing? • What are the bodily processes that make the disease happen? • From stool, urine, sputum, complexion and posture, might be able to diagnosis what is happening inside the body. • What are the constituents of the body? What is the body made of? These questions were asked by the Presocratic philosophers. They worked a little before the Hip- pocratic physicians but there is partly at overlap. They also asked these ques- tions about the universe. • Physician probably knew about their theories. • Hippocratic Collection - 68 treates, they share common ideas. ◦ Body is made up of solid parts and fluid parts. The solid parts can be felt through palpation and some are known through animal sacrifices. ◦ Fluid components - one knows what comes out of the body and the most important part for life is breath, air and blood. ◦ Air is considered a fluid. ◦ Air is taken into the other part of the body into the chest. ◦ Thoracic cavity (upper cavity) and the abdomen is the lower cavity. The abdomen consists of the lower part and upper part, the stomach and the intestines. ◦ If air is stopped for a short time, the body fails. ◦ Blood is also important - it is replenished by food. The stomach is hot and cooks the food. It makes it weak and changes it into a stomach that can be assimilated by the body. The substance is turned into blood after this. ◦ Coction/pepsis - in the stomach. ◦ What cannot be changed into blood is moved into the intestines and passed out through the body as urine or stool. ◦ Hypothetical fluids inside the body - play a role mainly in disease; bile and phlegm. ◦ Bile is thought to be hot and dry. Bile would mainly occur in the summer. ◦ Phlegm is related to mucous and thought to be cold and moist. Phlegm would mainly occur in the winter. ◦ These two are together with blood. In some treatises, we find a system of four fluids or humours; yellow bile, blood (warm and moist), water and black bile. Black bile is supposed to be dry and cold. ◦ Bile, phlegm, blood and water - four fluids. Passage #70, Page 35 • Bile and phlegm are the two pathogenic humours • Bile and phlegm are always in the body and under normal circumstances, are mixed together with the blood. Under certain circumstances, they start to stand out and change their character. • Any change is considered dangerous. They become this way from food and drink (external - might make the bile hotter or dryer or the phlegm cold and wet), heat and cold. Either external or internal influences. • Exercise is another external factor that might dry the inside of the body. It might
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