• Pre-Socratics (600-450 B.C.)
◦ Lived before Socrates and had different concerns than Socrates
• Socrates (469-399 B.C.)
• Plato (424 - 347 B.C.)
◦ Picked up questions of Socrates and in his writings makes Socrates the
◦ What is really a table? Is there truly a good?
• Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
Aristotle and His School
Outline of Lecture
• Hierarchy of Life
• The body and its parts
• Organs and Function
• Student of Plato and he gave us a good picture of what reality was like
• He wanted to describe reality as we experienced it with our different senses.
• He wrote on rhetoric, logic and ethics. He wrote on natural science. He was mainly
concerned with animals but he didn't write about medicine.
• Biological works include Parts of Animals including anatomy and physiology. Histo-
ry was an investigation into animals. Progression of animals deals with move-
ment or how animals move.
• Studied nature in the animal world. In these books we find some ideas that are im-
portant for medicine.
• Divide the world into animals and non-animals. What is the difference? Animals
think and move by themselves. Inanimate things don't move by themselves.
• Animate - includes plants because they have the principle of growth.
• Animal - living things. Anima - means the same thing as psyche or soul.
• He was the first who dissected animals for research purposes. He noticed that
some animals possess blood and there are other animals that are bloodless like
◦ Dissected animals that are blood-possessing and non-blood-possessing
◦ Blood-possessing are divided into mammals, birds, fish.
◦ Birds further divided into sparrows…etc.
• Higher level - genus; lower level - species.
• Animals that have an appetitive soul - have inherent movement, animals care of
their young and that also have the capacity to fulfill this desire and remember.
Also have the capacity to feel.
• At the top of the hierarchy is man who has all of these souls but they can think and
recall the past at will. They have a rational soul. • These limbs are all different from each other and the limbs you can further divide.
The face you can subdivide into features.
• Neuron - means ligament, tendon or nerve but they don't really distinguish between
• Homoiomere - similar part or means parts that are all the way through the same.
• Compounded parts that are different from each other and parts that homogenous
• There is a relationship between structure and what the parts do. Things are shaped
a certain way so they can perform functions. Because the head is like a cupping
instrument it can attract. Because lungs are spongy, they absorb things.
• Aristotle thought the body is organized so well that this cannot be just by chance.
• Each part in the body serves a certain purpose. Telos - means goal or end. Can
also mean result.
• Some parts in the body might serve more than one service. Tongue is used to
speak and also can taste.
• The whole body serves the life principle of a human being. The life principle is the
• Some animals have horns and other have prominent teeth or strong legs. All of
these serve the