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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - Aristotle.doc

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2900
Beate Gundert

Time Periods • Pre-Socratics (600-450 B.C.) ◦ Lived before Socrates and had different concerns than Socrates • Socrates (469-399 B.C.) • Plato (424 - 347 B.C.) ◦ Picked up questions of Socrates and in his writings makes Socrates the protagonist. ◦ What is really a table? Is there truly a good? • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Aristotle and His School Outline of Lecture • Classification • Hierarchy of Life • The body and its parts • Organs and Function • Ideology Aristotle • Student of Plato and he gave us a good picture of what reality was like • He wanted to describe reality as we experienced it with our different senses. • He wrote on rhetoric, logic and ethics. He wrote on natural science. He was mainly concerned with animals but he didn't write about medicine. • Biological works include Parts of Animals including anatomy and physiology. Histo- ry was an investigation into animals. Progression of animals deals with move- ment or how animals move. • Studied nature in the animal world. In these books we find some ideas that are im- portant for medicine. • Divide the world into animals and non-animals. What is the difference? Animals think and move by themselves. Inanimate things don't move by themselves. • Animate - includes plants because they have the principle of growth. • Animal - living things. Anima - means the same thing as psyche or soul. • He was the first who dissected animals for research purposes. He noticed that some animals possess blood and there are other animals that are bloodless like insects. ◦ Dissected animals that are blood-possessing and non-blood-possessing animals. ◦ Blood-possessing are divided into mammals, birds, fish. ◦ Birds further divided into sparrows…etc. • Higher level - genus; lower level - species. • Animals that have an appetitive soul - have inherent movement, animals care of their young and that also have the capacity to fulfill this desire and remember. Also have the capacity to feel. • At the top of the hierarchy is man who has all of these souls but they can think and recall the past at will. They have a rational soul. • These limbs are all different from each other and the limbs you can further divide. The face you can subdivide into features. • Neuron - means ligament, tendon or nerve but they don't really distinguish between these three. • Homoiomere - similar part or means parts that are all the way through the same. Homogenous. • Compounded parts that are different from each other and parts that homogenous or homoiomere. • There is a relationship between structure and what the parts do. Things are shaped a certain way so they can perform functions. Because the head is like a cupping instrument it can attract. Because lungs are spongy, they absorb things. • Aristotle thought the body is organized so well that this cannot be just by chance. • Each part in the body serves a certain purpose. Telos - means goal or end. Can also mean result. • Some parts in the body might serve more than one service. Tongue is used to speak and also can taste. • The whole body serves the life principle of a human being. The life principle is the soul. • Some animals have horns and other have prominent teeth or strong legs. All of these serve the
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