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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 3151F/G

Sports Day 1: parade and sacrifices - worship Day 2: morning (chariot races) - Stadion (200 yards) - Afternoon: Pentathalon o Discus throwing o Long jump with handweights o Thronged javelin throw o Foot race o Wrestling match o One winner for the whole thing Day 3: morning: parade to altar of zeus (feast) - Afternoon: boy’s events Day 4: Morning: Foot races – 200 yard, 400 yard and 4800 yard - Afternoon: wrestling (best of 3 falls), boxing (fight until someone is unconscious or gives up, slmost bare knuckle – signal for giving up – raise 1 finger), pankration (no weight classes or judging), race in armor (hoplitodromos) Had no team sports, swimming or weightlifting – only practiced and coached in these sports Day 5: concluding worship and banquet Presocratics - Arche – the ultimate nature of reality o Natural scientists – looking for the “primal thing” o First claim that the universe is comprehensible o Everyone else – how can we know? - Materialists (Milesians) o Wanted to know what matter is made of o Thales – prime substance is water, at one point the earth was completely covered in water o Anaximenes – water comes from air, we cannot live without air o Heraclitus – humans need heat, fire comes whenever you reduce something, sun is fire o Xenophanes – believed in multiple realities and multiple truths – didn’t believe in gods, everything has an alternate reality o Through trying to disprove them – kickstart to our basic laws of the universe o Pythagoras – sees the universe as governed by numbers and equations – harmony of the heavenly spheres – found patterns/laws that govern numbers – also had a religion that practiced vegetarianism o Formalists – wanted form or shape of universe o Parmenides – if you have something, change it, then it is not what it was before (ex. of the alphabetical list  If you change what exists (Being, Existent), it is not what it was before  Says nothing can change, it is all an illusion – if you perceive change don’t believe it  Don’t trust your senses  “What exists is now, all at once, one and continuous... Nor is it divisible, since it is all alike; nor is there any more or less of it in one place which might prevent it from holding together, but all is full of what is.” o Heraclitus – “Being is change” , ‘The obscure’, logos – constant change/flux – believed in fire (always changing/flickering) – the universe is war  The problem is language, causes you to trick yourself , when you give labels to something you form a bias  Heraclitus doesn’t trust language, Parmenides doesn’t trust reality o Pluralists: Empedocles (earth, wind, fire, water) + Democritus (atom) o Attack against presocratics: vain (just showing off) and trivial (why does it matter?) - Lyric comes from Ionia – played with lyre- intense personal emotion** - Archolicus – famous general, island off the coast of Ionia, talks about bravery and cowardice, engaged to a wealthy girl – Neobule - Theognis – wrote to his male lover – deep love (want to assist them) - Immediate expression about what it’s like to depend on someone for their money - Sappho – most famous lyric poet, ran a school for girls, had love affairs with women, story she threw herself off a cliff – love is her universe
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