Computer Science 1033 Topic 7 Notes

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Western University
Computer Science
Computer Science 1033A/B
Vivi Tryphonopolous

Animation Introduction to Animation  Reasons to use animation: o Indicates movement and change over time o Visualises three-dimensional space o Attracts attention  Animation: A sequence of images that create the illusion of movement when played in succession o Frame: Each drawing in an animation; a snapshot of what is happening at a particular moment  Frames per second (FPS) benchmarks:  Movies on film – 24 fps  Television – 30 fps  Computer animation – 12 ~ 15 fps  Anything under such benchmark will look ‘jerky’ o Simulation of frames that have objects in slightly different positions. o Each frame overlaps the previous one in rapid sequence, creating the illusion of a moving object. o The more fps, the more believable the movement will be, and bigger the final version of the movie file will be.  Controlling animation: o Sampling process: Controlling the frame rate (playback speed of animation in fps) o Quantization process: Controlling the number of available colors Animation Types  2-D animation: o Cel (celluloid) animation: Clear sheet material on which images were hand-drawn by movie  Celluloid images placed on a stationary background  Background remains fixed until scene change, and object changes from frame to frame  First full-length celluloid-based animated movie was ‘Snow White’ (1937)  Over 350,000 frames and 1,500,000 pen and ink drawings o Path animation:  Pick the keyframes and a path for it to follow and a tween can be generated  Start frame: The start point for an object  Ending frame: Ending point for an object  Animation software allows the user to choose frame rate, transition, repetition, and other user controls.  Animation can be sped up by:  Reducing the number of frames  Increasing the frame rate  Animation can be slowed down by:  Adding more frames (file size increases)  Lowering the frame rate (looks less realistic) o Keyframe: Animating a graphical object by creating a smooth transition between various keyframes o Tweening (in-betweening): Process of generating intermediate frames between two images to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second one o Onion skinning: Technique used to create animated cartoons and edit movies to see several frames at once  Animator or editor can make decisions based on the previous image in the sequence o Rotoscoping: Technique for combining cartoon figures with music in television commercials and for special effects in feature-length films  Animations trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame for use in animated films.  Silhouette is created that can be used to extract that object from a scene to use on another background  3-D animation: o Composed of three steps:  Modelling:  Defining the object’s shape  Process of creating broad contours and structures of 3D objects  Animating:  Defining object’s m
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