Computer Science 1033 Topic 9 Notes

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Computer Science
Computer Science 1033A/B
Vivi Tryphonopolous

Sound Introduction to Sound  Sound is used to: o Easily capture attention of users o Facilitate easy learning or marketing o Set the mood o Communicate over the web via Internet Getting Sound  Purchasing: o Purchase a CD (Watch for copyright infringements when using sound on your webpage) o Download sound from companies or iTunes  Creating: o Recording program with a computer and speak to a built-in microphone (low quality) o Recording studio with equipment that records sound digitally (high quality) o Use electronic instruments by connecting the instrument to a computer to capture sound into a MIDI format  Recording: o In multimedia application, sound is stored in a digital form (string of dots / samples of audio) o To convert from analog to digital sound, samples of the sound wave are taken and recorded as sound waves o Computers have a sound card that converts sound waves from a microphone (not laptops).  Sound cards have:  Analog-to-digital (ADC) converter for recording  Digital-to-analog (DAC) converter for playing audio o Quality of sound depends on:  Sample rate: Number of times per second that the waveform is measured  Measured in Hz (1000 HZ = 1KHz)  Must have 2 or more samples per wave (Nyquist Limit)  More samples per wave means better sound and bigger audio file  Sample rates: o 8 KHz: Telephone voice quality o 11.025 KHz: AM Quality o 22 KHz: FM Quality o 44.1 KHz: CD  Sample size (Bit depth): Each measurement taken that is represented by a value  Higher sample size means better sound and bigger audio files  Channels:  Mono signal: One channel / stream of data reproduced equally on both speakers  Stereo signal: Two channels / streams of data (double the size of file and better quality)  Codecs: Software programs that greatly reduce the audio file size  Lossy compression (removes redundant and less significant data, and reduces quality)  Common uncompressed formats: o .wav: Common (44KHz, 16 bit) o .aiff
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