Computer Science 1033 Topic 4 Notes

3 Pages

Computer Science
Course Code
Computer Science 1033A/B
Vivi Tryphonopolous

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Internet and the World Wide Web Internet  Network: A group of interconnected computers  Internet: A global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. o TCP/IP: A standard transmission control protocol with rules for the format and transmission of data. o The Internet is hardware of networks, while the World Wide Web is software that runs on the Internet.  One can connect to the internet through: o Internet service provider by modem (ISP) o Internet ready cable o Digital subscriber line (DSL)  How does the internet work? o Circuit switching: Transfer the complete data without splitting it. How a phone line works. o Packet switching:  Packet: Small group of consisting of:  Header (64 bytes): Destination and source  Body (512 bytes): Actual message content  On the internet, data is sent through transferring packets through different IP addresses. o TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)  At the sending end:  Take a large chunk of data and break it into small packets.  IP is responsible for sending the packets out on to the internet.  At the receiving end:  Detect lost packets, error packets because of network congestion, traffic load balancing, etc.  Request packets to be resent from the source.  Rearrange and reassemble the packets back into the original document. o IP (Internet Protocol)  Picks a route for a packet, stopping at router devices which pick the next best machine to send it  Need to be able to identify all the machines on the internet, and thus each machine has a unique IP.  IP Address:  4 numbers that range from 0 to 255. <>  Can be also written in binary, hexadecimal, or decimal, but dotted quad is most popular  Not based on geography.  Domain name: Text name corresponding the numeric IP address of the computer on the internet  A DNS (Domain Name System) maps the domain name to the correct IP address o URL (Uniform Resource Locator)  Website address; Established by Tim Berners-Lee  An address of a web document on a computer that every website has   http://: Hypertext Transfer protocol. Rules that define how data is exchanged.  www: Indicates file is on the World Wide Web  Domain name. Name of the site.  its/courses/: Folders  spring.html: Webpage file o Subdomains: Used to organize your web server  Maximum of 127 labels, each with maximum of 63 characters  Whole domain cannot exceed 255 chars, including TLD   .com: Top Level Domain  mycar. 2 ndlevel doma
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