D is for the Divine.docx

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Western University
Comparative Literature and Culture
Comparative Literature and Culture 2125A/B
Prof Calin

D is for the Divine  Organized religions : Islam, Christianity, Mosaism (Judaism)  Atheist: a person who believes they do not believe in any gods  Idea of belief o Question of personal history o Family upbringing, etc  Greek o Eros o Philia o Agape  Latin o Eros > Amor o Agape > Charity  Pagan: not considered Christians, or Christianity based  Muslims use infidels for their word for pagan  Christianity has been a militant religion : soldier of God  Milas Christi > soldier of God  The word pagan comes from latin, it means the inhabitant of a small/remote village o Paganos o People who had not been Christianized, Christianity is a urban religion o Pagans were the most remote individuals o Used the word pagan to name the old Greeks o Also used to describe a religion that came before Christianity  Christianity started spreading around 50 A.D. o St. Paul  Plato o Distinction between three kinds of love > eros, philia, and agape o Eros: sexual love  Object of your desire  Define yourself as gay, lesbian, straight or bisexual o Philia: love of friends, love of family members (non-sexual)  In general, if it becomes sexual love = incest, which is heavily punished in many societies o Agape: sacred love, love of the soul, transcends itself into the divine  Meets divinity, or the spirit of the divine  St. Paul o Reduced the kinds of love to only two o Agape: the love of God  Charity - main virtues of the Christian o Eros: Amor  Bliss or boredom (relation to eros)  To the seven major virtues, corresponded to the seven deadly sins (good or bad) o Humility, pride  There is a contradiction between sin and virtue  In biblical literature, the act of giving must be done quietly Double standard in Catholicism and Protestantism   Elastic concept o Give something to get something back  Sex or sexual traits are anatomic o Women and men o Well defined through sexual traits  Gender is a construction that is old o Natural to be gender-ized o Gender roles  Changing your gender role is not illegal o Some societies homosexuality is illegal although  Ex: Saudi Arabia , homosexuality punishable by death  Freud o As opposed to the modernist, the ancient Greeks valued the ability to desire, above the actual desire  Greek culture, was a bisexual culture/society o Democracy made possible by homosexuality o Family unit - no equality, each role is subordination  Males the head of the family  Among other men, they were equal  Known each other since children  Paideia - total education of Greek men o A constant education given to both the soul and body o Take boys @ age 12 o Do not spend time with women, until about 19-30 years old (dependent on whether or not they are in the military) o At 30, men must marry - reproduce  No shame in being bisexual o What is important is to act on your desire Realm of charm, not of brutality   What counts more, the object of your desire or the intensity of your desire? o Intensity of desire > brings out the animal in the individual o Jealousy , ownership of the one you desire  Monotheism may be anti-erotic, but polytheism rarely is o Jealousy is the essence of monotheistic love o One God - I am a jealous God o Covenant in Jewish religion, God and the chosen ones o Lack of body-liness, no physical connection  Pourvu que ca dure (provided that it lasts) o Usually used by French women, when a man starts dropping pick-up lines o Relation between eros and agape, between sexual love and sacred love  Out of body experiences (exorcisms), slaying of the spirit  Exorcisms : a big business  Body is presented as a prison, the prison of the soul (Plato) o Passions of the body o Illnesses of the body o Soul limiting the body to experience pleasure outside of the realm of God Plato's Dialogues o Dialogues come from the word dia - along, dynamic, logos - reason o Does not necessarily mean two characters o Movement of mind or language  Phaedrus (on love, writing & orality)  Politeia (republic/state)  Phaedo (on the soul)  The Apology of/for Socrates o First dialogue that he wrote o Sentimental , Socrates sentenced to death o Accusations against him for perverting the youth, and not respecting the gods  Timaeus o Dealing with the cosmological world o Full of myths  L
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