Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture 20: Earth Science Lecture March 24 2016

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MARCH 24 2016 LECTURE
MINERAL AND ENERGY RESOURCES
Metallic Mineral Deposits
Ore if mined for profit
oNon-Metallic are industrial minerals
Magmatic
oHeavy crystals like chromite and magnetite can settle in cooling pluton
Lightest minerals with rare elements crystallize in pegmatite dykes
Huge crystals
Hydrothermal
oMetals in hot solutions from magma precipitated as vein deposits of gold and
silver in rock fractures
oDisseminated deposits of copper and molybdenum ore are spread throughout
porphyritic host rock
oVolcanogenic massive sulphide deposits resulted from fresh seafloor reacting
with hot water at ancient oceanic ridges
Sedimentary
oBanded iron formation including magnetite, hematite and chert formed by
bacteria in Precambrian seas when the atmosphere lacked oxygen
oPlacer deposits formed by running water concentrating heavy minerals
Gold and diamonds
Metamorphism
oContact metamorphism and associated igneous activity cooked rocks including
limestone that became skarns rich in zinc, lead, copper and gold
Weathering
oBy hydrolysis of silicate minerals in the tropics
Concentrated insoluble aluminum as an oxide that is shipped to Canada
to extract the aluminum
Bauxite
Non-Metallic Resources
Important to construction, food and chemical industries
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