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Lecture 5

Earth Sciences 1086F/G Lecture 5: Chapter 5
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Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
Earth Sciences 1086F/G
Professor
Audrey Beauvoir

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Chapter 5: Gender Identity and Gender Roles
Prenatal Sexual Differentiation
Aristotle mistakenly believed that the anatomical difference between males and females was due
to the heat of semen at the time of sexual relations
o Hot semen males; cold semen females
A sperm cell fertilizes an ovum 23 chromosomes from male combine 23 chromosomes from
females 23 pairs: sex chromosomes zygote (受精卵): at this stage, the stamp of a unique
individual has been ensured
Female: XX sex chromosomal structure; Male: XY sex chromosomal structure
After fertilization, the zygote divides repeatedly
o Three weeks a primitive heart
o 5 / 6 weeks embryo (胚胎,初期) has a pair of sexually undifferentiated gonads
o 7 weeks genetic code (XX / XY) begins to assert itself changes in the gonads
XY: testes begin to differentiate; seminiferous tubules (精管)
o 11 / 12 weeks: XX: ovaries begin to differentiate and form;
Sex Hormones and Sexual Differentiation
o Male
Androgens雄性激素: male sex hormones
Testosterone睾丸
Fosters development of male sex characteristics
Connected with the sex drive
Spurs differentiation of male (Wolffian) duct system
Dihydrotestosterone(DHT): influence the development of external genitals
Mullerian-inhibiting substance(MIS): avoid to develop female duct system
o Female
Small amount of androgen produced in female fetuses(胎儿)
Mullerian ducts evolve into fallopian tubes, uterus, upper 2/3 of the vagina
Female sex hormones are not involved in fetal sexual differentiation
Descent of the Testes and Ovaries
o 10 weeks: they are almost even with the upper edge of the pelvis
Ovaries remain there for the rest of the prenatal period
o 4 months: testesscrotal sac through the inguinal canal(腹股沟管), which then closes
o Cryptorchidism(睾病)
Sex Chromosome Abnormalities
o Kliefelter’s sdrome: condition that affects about one in 500 males
Give an extra X sex chromosome XXY
Men fail to develop appropriate secondary sex characteristics infertile
o Turer’s sdroe: oditio that affet aout oe i 5 feales
Having only one X sex chromosome
Females may not naturally undergo puberty need hormone treatment
o Brain, like the genital organs, undergoes prenatal sexual differentiation
Gender Identity
A perso’s iteral pshologial sese of eig ale, feale, or a other shade of geder
Assigned sex: the classification of anatomic sex given at birth as either male, female, intersex
Most people are cisgender: gender identity that matches assigned sex
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Most children (18 months): aware of their assigned sex
Most children (36 months): acquired a firm sense of gender identity
Nature and Nuture
o Gender identity is usually consistent with chromosomal gender
o In western culture, societal rigidity gender binary (strictly either male / female)
Represents a socially prescribed way of classifying gender in our culture
Does not accurately reflect the diverse range of gender identities actually exist
o Intersex individuals who possess() the gonads of one anatomic sex and external
genitalia(生殖器) that are ambiguous or typical of the other anatomic sex
Less rare (one in 5000); have testes or ovaries, but not both
Gonads match their chromosomal sex
o Hermaphrodite雌雄同体: identities & roles of the genders-assigned at birthQuite rare
o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
Most common female intersex condition
XX female: female internal sexual structures and male external genitals
Caused by high levels of androgens
Female with CAH
Showed more interest in masculine-typed toys
More likely to have boys as playmates and want male-typed careers
o Androgen insensitivity syndrome
XY males have experienced lower-than-normal prenatal sensitivity to androgens
External genitals are feminized
o Dominican republic syndrome: Genetic enzyme disorder
Prevents testosterone from masculinizing external genitalia
Their scrotums阴囊: incompletely formed and resembled female labia阴唇
They also had partially formed vaginas
Boys with this condition resembled girls at birth and were reared as females
Great probability shifted to male gender identities
o Many scientists conclude that gender identity is influenced by complex interactions
among biological and psychological factors
Gender Dysphoria病理性心境, 躁不安
o According to American Psychiatric Association (APA)
o Ioles strog desires to e treated as the other geder or to e rid of oe’s sex
characteristics, or a strong conviction信念 that one has feelings and reactions typical of
the other geder
o The diagosis is depedet o the oditio ausig liiall sigifiat distress or
impatient in social, occupational, or other important areas of futioig
Gender Non-conforming Children
o In the past, they were often clinically diagnosed with gender identity disorder
Steer children to adopt a gender identity consistent with their assigned sex
Increasingly being opposed now
o More people believe to take a supportive approach accept and support children
Trasgeder Tras
o Assigned sex at birth different gender identity, expression / behavior
o Trasgeder ouit prefer that trasseual ot e used
sounds overly clinical; like a medical condition
prefer that tras e used
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Description
Chapter 5: Gender Identity and Gender Roles Prenatal Sexual Differentiation Aristotlemistakenly believed thattheanatomicaldifferencebetweenmalesandfemaleswasdue to the heat of semen at the time of sexual relations o Hot semen males; cold semen females A sperm cell fertilizes an ovum 23 chromosomes from male combine 23 chromosomes from females 23 pairs: sex chromosomes zygote (): at this stage, the stamp of a unique individual has been ensured Female: XX sex chromosomal structure; Male: XY sex chromosomal structure After fertilization, the zygote divides repeatedly o Three weeks a primitive heart o 5 / 6 weeks embryo (,) has a pair of sexually undifferentiated gonads o 7 weeks genetic code (XX / XY) begins to assert itself changes in the gonads XY: testes begin to differentiate; seminiferous tubules () o 11 / 12 weeks: XX: ovaries begin to differentiate and form; Sex Hormones and Sexual Differentiation o Male Androgens: male sex hormones Testosterone Fosters development of male sex characteristics Connected with the sex drive Spurs differentiation of male (Wolffian) duct system Dihydrotestosterone(DHT): influence the development of external genitals Mullerian-inhibiting substance(MIS): avoid to develop female duct system o Female Small amount of androgen produced in female fetuses() Mullerian ducts evolve into fallopian tubes, uterus, upper 2/3 of the vagina Female sex hormones are not involved in fetal sexual differentiation Descent of the Testes and Ovaries o 10 weeks: they are almost even with the upper edge of the pelvis Ovaries remain there for the rest of the prenatal period o 4 months: testesscrotal sac through the inguinal canal(), which then closes o Cryptorchidism() Sex Chromosome Abnormalities o Klinefelters syndrome: condition that affects about one in 500 males Give an extra X sex chromosome XXY Men fail to develop appropriate secondary sex characteristics infertile o Turners syndrome: condition that affect about one in 2500 females Having only one X sex chromosome Females may not naturally undergo puberty need hormone treatment o Brain, like the genital organs, undergoes prenatal sexual differentiation Gender Identity A persons internal psychological sense of being male, female, or any other shade of gender Assigned sex: the classification of anatomic sex given at birth as either male, female, intersex Most people are cisgender: gender identity that matches assigned sex Most children (18 months): aware of their assigned sex Most children (36 months): acquired a firm sense of gender identity Nature and Nuture o Gender identity is usually consistent with chromosomal gender o In western culture, societal rigidity gender binary (strictly either male / female) Represents a socially prescribed way of classifying gender in our culture Does not accurately reflect the diverse range of gender identities actually exist o Intersex individuals who possess() the gonads of one anatomic sex and external genitalia() that are ambiguous or typical of the other anatomic sex Less rare (one in 5000); have testes or ovaries, but not both Gonads match their chromosomal sex o Hermaphrodite: identities & roles of the genders-assigned at birthQuite rare o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) Most common female intersex condition XX female: female internal sexual structures and male external genitals Caused by high levels of androgens Female with CAH Showed more interest in masculine-typed toys More likely to have boys as playmates and want male-typed careers o Androgen insensitivity syndrome XY males have experienced lower-than-normal prenatal sensitivity to androgens External genitals are feminized o Dominican republic syndrome: Genetic enzyme disorder Prevents testosterone from masculin
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