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Lecture 2

Earth Sciences 2123A/B Lecture 2: Periodic Table and Sun fusion
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4 Pages
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Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
Earth Sciences 2123A/B
Professor
Catherine Neish

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Description
Lecture 2 – Periodic Table and Sun Fusion Dimitri Mendeleev  1871 he published a periodic table of elements and predicted the properties of 3 new elements o Gallium, Scandium and Germanium  Properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic weight  There are trends or patterns in the properties of the elements and these are related to their atomic weight and associated electron structure Periodic Law 1. From left to right across a period / row – electrons are being added to the same energy level and protons are being added to the nucleus o The electrons in the outer energy level are, therefore attracted more strongly and so are pulled closer to the nucleus o Atomic size is decreasing 2. Moving down in a group, it starts to fill more energy levels o The outermost electrons become less tightly bound to the nucleus o Atomic size is increasing 3. Elements tend to gain or lose outermost- valence electrons to achieve stable filled octet formation – this makes those multiples of 8 electrons very stable – the inert / noble gases of group VIII  Atomic radius – half the distance between the centres of two atoms that are just touching each other  Ionization Energy – amount of energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom o The closer and more tightly bound an electron is to the nucleus, the more difficult is to remove and the higher its ionization energy is  Electron Affinity – the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule to form a negative ion  Electronegativity – the tendency of an atom to attract electrons Molecules  Molecules are two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds o The molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights o Thus, one of mole of water weights – 2x (1.01g/mol H) + (16.00g/mol O) = 18.0g /mol H O2  Another example – CaCO or3calcite – mineral name o Limestone rock is made up of mainly the mineral calcite o The molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weight Sun Fusion Units and Prefixes Prefix Symbol Factor Numerically Name Giga G 109 1000000000 Billion Mega M 106 1000000 Million Kilo K 103 1000 Thousand Centi C 10-2 0.01 Hundredth Milli M 10-3 0.001 Thousandth Micro u 10-6 0.000001 Millionth Nano n 10-9 0.000000001 Billionth Measurement – Lengths, mass, Volume Quantity measu
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