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Earth Rocks - 2013 - ALL COURSE NOTES.pdf

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Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock

EARTH SCIENCES 1022a Lectures 2013Earth Rocks3020Lectures 121 pm Tuesdays Thursdays in Natural Sciences room 1 3030303030303030303030303030Labs BGS1015 T13W91111135Th10121335685 course laboratory fee MUST PASS LAB PART TO PASS THE COURSETextEarth by Tarbuck et al 2012 Web log in at httpsowluwocaportal 3030Professor Dr SR Hicock BG 1076 shicockuwoca hours T Th 24 Tu Th TopicChapter Sep 10 12 Welcome introduction to plate tectonics117minerals2 19 igneous rocks324volcanoes etc4 26 weathering and soils5 Oct 1sedimentary rocks6 3 metamorphic rocks78geologic time8 10 crustal deformation915earthquakes 10 17 ocean floor 1122plate tectonics 12 24 cancelled 29M I D T E R M T E S T 31 STUDY BREAK Nov 5Mountain building 13 7 mass wasting1412running water15 14 groundwater1619glaciers and glaciation17 21 deserts and wind1826shorelines19 28 mineral and energy resources 20Earth Sciences 1022aLecture Brief 12 Sep 13INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND PLATE TECTONICSWhy Geology study of Earth is important for energy and natural resources solving environmental problems building cities and highways predicting and protecting against natural disasters like earthquakes volcanic eruptions landslides floodsUniformitarianismfundamental principle the present is the key to the pastHow long geologic time is measured in billions of yearsWhere and How After the Big Bang 15 billion years ago Earth may have formed by the nebular hypothesis 5 billion years ago a solar nebula of hydrogen and helium gravitationally contracted into a rotating disc with our Sun at the centre and the planets and moons revolving around it within the disc Earth evolved through many collisions of rocky and metallic fragments into a rocky sphere divided into a dense core large mantle and lighter crustPlate Tectonics the crust and uppermost mantle eventually split into rigid plates of lithosphere sphere of rock that move over Earths surface above the soft convecting asthenosphere weak sphere by Continental Drift based on fit of the continentseg South America Africa and other continents fit well together at 900 m depth which coincides with the edge of their continental shelves fossil evidencesame type and age found on continents separated by ocean basins rock types and structural similaritiesmatch when continents are fit back together paleo climatesevidence of ancient glaciations in warm areas of todayshow the pattern of a single ice sheet if continents are refitted back together also ancient coal fields that formed in tropical swamps now occur in areas of cold climate most geologic activity eg earthquakes volcanoes occurs at plate boundaries especially at convergent boundaries where denser oceanic lithosphere descends beneath lighter continental lithosphere at depth it melts to produce magma which rises to the surface and erupts as volcanoes which in turn are eventually eroded and the sediment carried by streams to the ocean againEarth System and Rock Cycle Earth is a dynamic planet system of interacting hydrosphere atmosphere biosphere and geosphere solid earth matter molecules is recycled with changing conditions of depth pressure temperature and rock type within Earths crust eg convergent boundaries the rock cycle and plate tectonics together produce many different types of rocks that are made up of different minerals that we will study in detail next class
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