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Earth Rocks Lecture 1.docx

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Professor
Stephen R Hicock
Semester
Winter

Description
Earth Rocks Lecture 1 Midterm 20% Labs 40%:       10%  ▯6 labs marked 10%  ▯mineral and rocks quiz 20%  ▯lab exam Final Exam 40% Geology Uniformitarianism:   • Fundamental principle “the present is the key to the past” How long? • Billions of years  • Earth is 4.6 billion years old Where and How? • Nebular hypothesis: 15 billion years ago – explosion  ▯solar nebula developed  ▯ gaseous cloud in space made up of He(second most basic) and H+(most basic)  • Nebula: H and He contracted under gravity into the flat disc of our solar system • Earth formed core, mantle, crust • Heavy material migrated to the inside/centre  • The lighter elements in earth’s material formed the crust • Core : heat derived from radioactive energy, liquid o Heavy material goes to the core o Lighter material goes to the outside toward the crust • Mantle: between the core and the crust  • Figure 1.25  • Mainly iron and nickel • Crust with upper part of the mantle little sphere, sphere of rock  • Asthenosphere: weak, very hot, moves over time (convection movement) • Lithosphere: sphere of rock, moves over Earth’s surface Plate Tectonics • 1­2cm per year of movement • crust and uppermost mantle  ▯lithosphere and asthenosphere Alfred Wegener 1920s
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