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Lecture

Earth Rocks Lecture 2.docx

2 Pages
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Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Professor
Stephen R Hicock

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Earth Rocks Lecture 2 Minerals Amethyst type of Quartz:  • Chromium and titanium making it purple Study of minerals:  • Mineralogy Mineral:  • Minerals are solid chemical compounds that combine to form rocks.  • They are found in nature • Bonding determines their chemical properties – test for  hardness • Cleavage is the weakest bonding  • 4000 minerals found – 20 dominate Earth’s crust Common Minerals  • Silicates: o Most abundant o Silicon is bases of Quartz o Si bonded to 4 O2 ion – silicon oxygen tetrahedron o O2 is an anion – negative charge o Ion is an element – it has a charge – couple of extra  electrons  Common Silicate Minerals  Feromagnesian (dark) silicates  • Olivine: single tetrahedral – usually grass green o Independent tetrahedron o Found on the sea floor o Group of minerals  o No cleavage • Bonded to Fe2+, Mg2+ ions • Natural solid compounds common in Earth’s crust • Pyroxene: common in the crust o Single chains of silicon – oxygen tetrahedral o 90 degree cleavage o  zigzag pattern with the Silicon  o within the chains – covalent bonding (stronger) within the  chains o sharing of electrons with the silicon­oxygen, making it a  stronger bond o between the chains is ionic – weaker than covalent • Amphibole: double chain tetrahedral o 120 d
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