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Lecture 17

Lecture 17 - Evolution of Sex and Rise of Eukaryotes

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Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1083F/G
Cameron Tsujita

Lecture 17Evolution of Sex and Rise of Eukaryotes y Two Types of Organisms o Prokaryotes lack a true nucleusDerived from Greek pros meaning before and karyon meaning nut referring to the nucleus o Eukaryotes have a true nucleusDerived from the Greek eus or true and karyon meaning nut again referring to the nucleus y Prokaryotes o Simple cells enclosed by a cell wall o Contains amino acids and sugars outer part made of lipids o Have a single chromosome with a nucleotide region rather than a nucleus o Reproduction by binary fission makes identical copy of genetic material and divides into two y Eukaryotes o Complex cells with a membranebound nucleus and other structures such as mitochondria and plastids o Much larger in size o Genetic information is contained within chromosomes in the nucleus o Two methods of reproductionMitosis replication of genetic material and splitting for form 2 identical daughter cellsMeiosis involves splitting of genetic material to be recombined by sexual reproduction creates 4 unidentical daughter cells gametes y Functions of Mitosis and Meiosis o Mitosis the main process involved in maintaining tissue growth and some reproduction for amoebas or asexual budding of clones like in corals o Meiosis fundamental process involved in reproduction among eukaryotes meeting of gametes from 2 parents to produce offspring y Sources of Variation Asexual vs Sexual Reproduction o Asexual mutation and errors in code transcription o Sexual mutation errors in code transcription crossing or trading of genetic material between chromosome pairs splitting and recombination of genetic materialEnsures lots of variation and change by natural selection y Origin of the Nucleus o Probably not too difficult for first eukaryote o Produced by infolding of the cell membrane engulfing the genetic materialMost basic idea y Why Do We Have Plants and Animals o Lies in the types of organelles eukaryotes possess
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