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Lecture 2

Earth Sciences 1086F/G Lecture 2: GF sum 2

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Western University
Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1086F/G
Elizabeth Webb

Fermentation: anaerobic metabolic process, sugars acids, gases, alcohols Bioconversion: organic material biological process usable products FEEDSTOCKS FOR ALCOHOLS Food crops: Carbs as starches *** starch is readily bio convertible - Polymer of glucose Starch Cellulose - converted to - Recalcitrant secondary Non-food crops glucose through structure impededs - Carbs as cellulose/ hemicellulose mashing degradation of cellulose by - Tightly bound to lignin - mild heat + enzymes enzymes (a- - pretreatment may - Polymer of multiple sugars amylase, b- generate inhibitor Biofuels glucosidase fermentation compounds st Xylan From hemicellulose, forms 1 gen: from food crops xylose, may not be readily consumed by industrial - Biodiesel, bioethanol, biobutanol nd processes (requires a lot of 2 gen: from non-food crops enzymes) Enzymes are water soluble - Biodiesel- brown/ yellow grease, jatropha - Bioethanol & biobutanol corn stover, wheat grass, woodchips Advanced: any biofuel not produced from food crops rd 3 gen: biofuels produced from photosynthetic organisms such as algae Pretreatment Physical Physical/ Chemical Thermochemical - grinding, milling, chipping - steam explosion - Pyrolysis - Hydrolysis of levoglucosan (bio-oil) to glucose - Organosolv process - dilute acids in organic solvents used to delignify
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