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Chapter 14.docx

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
Earth Sciences 1086F/G
Professor
Deana Schwarz
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 14: Jupiter and Family Intro - Huge planet - 0.001% the mass of Sun - Io – innermost of 4 Galilean satellites o moves really fast - hurricane force winds - a swirling vortex of clouds (Great Red Spot) - bad radiation - emits 1.7 times more heat than it receives from the sun - 4 satellites (in this order Galilean satellites) o Io - volcanic o Europa – liquid water o Ganymede – water slush o Callisto – never chemically differentiated Missions - Pioneer 10 – not in solar system, 500 pics - Pioneer 11 – not in solar system, better pics than previous - Galileo – 14 years running, crashed it into Jupiter on purpose to not contaminate Europa o Study magnetosphere o First to pass an asteroid (Gaspra and Ida) - New Horizons – headed for Pluto - Juno – first solar powered craft Planetary Facts - Low density - Orbit and rotation o Very slight obliquity o Rotates fast o Oblateness at equator (bulges a bit) - 63 satellites Interior Heat Engine - Gas, liquid and metallic hydrogen - Heat from slow compaction of planet Magnetosphere - Dunno how it’s made - Differential motion of different states of hydrogen? - Traps charged particles and puts them into a teardrop shape - Satellites Europa and Ganymede o Strength of radiation low by the time it reaches these satellites - Makes auras at magnetic poles Atmosphere - Below clouds of Jupiter, largest ocean with no surface or waves o b/c temp and pressure when liquid and gaseous hydrogen have same density is pretty much the same - Galileo probe and Atmosphere Structure Instrument (ASI) o Found strong wind and turbulence o Low helium, neon, carbon, oxygen, sulfur o No water clouds o Dry environment with no condensation o Clouds  Organized into dark belts and bright zones (b/c of rotation)  Belts hotter than zones  Belts have descending gas and zones have rising gas  Each hemisphere has 6 bands blowing in opposite directions o High/low pressure zones bounded by high-speed wind o Colours from traces of compounds with sulfur or phosphorus modified by sunlight o light/dark spots  dark spots are openings  white spots are cloud circulations o rising gas makes thunderheads 50 km high Geology - we dunno s
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