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Chapter 15.docx

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Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1086F/G
Deana Schwarz

Chapter 15: Saturn and Family Intro - Most distant visible one - Thick haze layer Missions - Pioneer 11 – low resolution - Voyager 1&2 – hydrogen/helium atmosphere, auroras, rings - Cassini-Huygens o Cassini by NASA, Huygens by ESA o Small plutonium nuclear reactor o Venus-venus-earth-jupiter o New horizons  Going to Pluto  Comes on once in a while for a checkup Facts - Really low density (density goes down further out of solar system you go) - Long orbital period Saturn - Less hydrogen, more heavy elements - Rocky core, thick metallic hydrogen mantle, liquid hydrogen - Hot inside – friction of falling helium - Atmosphere o Gaseousliquid planet transition o 91%H, 6%He, other shit o Belt-zone circulation  Zone – higher clouds of rising gas  Belt – lower clouds of sinking gas o Cold b/c so far from sun o Winds faster than Jupiter, not bound o Upper cloud layer high ammonia o Mid layer ammonia hydrosulfide o Inner layer water cloud - Magnetic field/ magnetosphere o Perfectly symmetrical o Deflects solar wind Saturn’s Rings - Seen by Galileo, mistaken for small planets - Huygens - found Titan (large satellite) and rings - In to out – D, C, B, A, F, G, E o Division b/w A and B is Cassini Division - Rings flow with resonance with Mimas - Ring right over equatorial plane - Spokes – dark radial fe
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