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Lecture 7

Earth Sciences 2240F/G Lecture 7: Earth science 7

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Western University
Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 2240F/G
Jennifer Mac Rae

Chapter 7 Volcano Basics: 1.0 Intro: good in volcanoes, rock decomposes for good agriculture, richest copper gold and silver deposits, geothermal energy provided by the heat of the magma 2.0 Magma Characteristics molten rock, may be a mix of hot liquid, gases and scattered mineral crystals spills to the surface and creates lava pyroclastic material When magma blows out in a violent eruption plutonic rocks magma that solidifies under the surface All rocks produced by magma, volcanic or plutonic are igneous rock 2.1 Viscosity and Volatiles Si and O2 form strong structures, the more there is the more viscous things become When the magma cools and more and more crystals form it reaches the point of solid rock Volatile compound, mainly water (uneven molecule, 2 hydrogens attached to water make the + end makes it dipolar) Water binds with the Si compounds breaking the chains and making magma more fluid then it would be without water When the water attaches to other compounds like this it is dissolved water when there is not enough to bind to you get exsolved water which forms bubbles when the magma cools, the cooler the magma the more exsolved water 2.2 Types of Magma types of volcanic rock: basalt, andesite and rhyolite Nearly all magma began with partial melt of Earths asthenosphere basalt: spewed out of a volcano with virtually no modifications to initial composition, very hot and fluid lava two basic textural types o aa (rubblylooking rock) has much less water then, o pahoehoe (smoothsurfaced, ropeylooking rock)
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