Economics 1021A/B Lecture Notes - Market Power, Perfect Competition, Marginal Revenue

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24 Apr 2012
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Nicole Wallenburg
Economics
Parkin
Nov 14, 2011
Economics Lecture #16
Perfect Competition
Perfect competition is an industry in which
Many firms sell identical products to many buyers.
There are no restrictions to entry into the industry.
Established firms have no advantages over new ones.
Sellers and buyers are well informed about prices.
Example:
o Corn, rice
How Perfect Competition Arises
Perfect competition arises:
When firm’s minimum efficient scale is small relative to market demand so there
is room for many firms in the industry.
And when each firm is perceived to produce a good or service that has no unique
characteristics, so consumers don’t care which firm they buy from.
Price Takers
In perfect competition, each firm is a price taker.
A price taker is a firm that cannot influence the price of a good or service.
No single firm can influence the price—it must “take” the equilibrium market
price.
Each firm’s output is a perfect substitute for the output of the other firms, so the
demand for each firm’s output is perfectly elastic.
Economic Profit and Revenue
The goal of each firm is to maximize economic profit, which equals total revenue minus
total cost.
Total cost is the opportunity cost of production, which includes normal profit.
A firm’s total revenue equals price, P, multiplied by quantity sold, Q, or P × Q.
A firm’s marginal revenue is the change in total revenue that results from a one-
unit increase in the quantity sold.
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