Colonized identifying with jewish people: there is a history of oppression w/ both cultures, anti-colonial intellectuals saw the holocaust as european barbarity, intellectual history for a writer (identifying with multiple groups) Crossing the atlantic makes the story american, meaning it does not share the colonial story/experience. Axial writer: a writer that struggles through multiple dif cult frameworks. Loneliness: caryl phillips accuses james baldwin of being lonely when he is actually lonely himself. A disregarding of feelings, which apprehend the world in this story, demonstrated as a form of knowing. The merchant of venice: shakespeare has always been important for marginalized groups, phillips revisits it and challenges previous interpretations, offers up his own regarding the jewish characters. Ending: p55: spits in his beard kicks him like a dog shylock has always been my hero. Similarity, an expression of solidarity: i will buy with you, sell with you, and so following.