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Western University
English 3554E
Alison Lee

1 Major themes throughout the course. **Think about with discussion questions** - sex and gender - history  issue of historical consciousness very important to writers in 1 st nd half of century, differently important in 2 half.  Ezra Pound  impact on The Waste Land o Guiding principal: ―make new‖  cutting off from history, new lit., new form...  Many embraced Pound‘s principal, many held on to Victorian et other historical backgrounds - What is the function of lit. after the Holocaust, how do you write after.  make it new! - 1 half, there‘s a tension between wanting to break from tradition and continue tradition .‘. not one thing that describes modernism. - Idea of ‗the city‘  urban enviro.  Movement from country to city (London, Dublin) o London itself becomes a sort of character, a symbol of the social body, what is socially acceptable and inacceptable is played out in how London is described, etc… - Notion of ‗Englishness‘  Powerful, economic force under rule of Victoria  After her death things began to go downhill  What is it to be English or British in the face of hybridity, urbanization, in the aftermath of war? -British class system  where one sits in the social hierarchy is dependant on ‗bloodlines‘ and heredity  less about money, you can be nouveau riche… but if you‘re the son of a dustman, that‘s who you remain. - The notion of form  closer to the 1920‘s the form of poetry and lit. becomes opaque. o Trying to think of how to respond to an enormous change (technology, science), if to make it new, if to respond to social change, cannot write in old Victorian forms .‘. must find new forms. Ie. More fragmentation.  How do you write a controlled ancient form when you‘ve just seen things nobody else has ever seen, in the wake of the war?... how do you think new ideas if you don‘t have a new form to put them in? - More rapid and extreme change than any century before  20 thcen. unique on its various forms in the study of mass destruction.  Seems to lurch form disaster to disaster, age of trauma, age of unbelievable, unprecedented slaughter, new and different methods of slaughtering people.  Philosopher Maurice Blanchot: ―Modern history is can we write or think about disaster when by it‘s very nature… shatters meaning‖ o Tried to respond to respond to some way or another to the trauma, etc…  Writiers spend a lot of time thinking ―what is literature?‖ ― What value can literature have after the Holocaust, Hiroshima?‖  Whether or not lit has a meaningful place in the world after these disasters. Imperialism 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM Rule Britannia! (1740)  1580  start of imperialism.  1740  celebration of Britain‘s pushing the boundaries, of Britain‘s empire. Land of Hope and Glory (1902)  Beginning to run into problems  Empire is beginning to lose some of its power fear about decline of empire  Plea for imperial power Jerusalem: Blake = (1804); music Sir Hubert Parry (1916)  Blake wrote based on a legend that Joseph had brought the young Jesus on one of this trading travels to the south west of England (Cornwall, Glastonbury) o Jesus has walked upon England…  The beginning of the ramp up of the industrial revolution, the satanic mills are the factories… pastoral  urban, shitty conditions; being paid very small amounts o Commenting on industrialization  Making a plea, not just to admonish industrialization, but to use brains in hope to make things better  Full of unanswered questions o Jerusalem represents a place of hope, of peace, counter to the satanic mills of the industrial revolution  Nostalgia  sense of we were great  sense of unity  fantasy of belonging  will & kate, diana‘s funeral.  sense of melancholia  Freud: ―Mourning and Meloncholia‖ o Mourning: ―reaction to the oss of a loved person, or to the loss of some abstraction which has taken the place of one, such as one‘s country, liberyy, an ideal and so on. Im some people the same influences produce melancholia instead of mourning and we consequently suspest them of a pathological disposition. It is also well worth notice that, althought mourning involves grave departures rom the normal attitude to life, it never occurs to us to regard it as a pathological…‖ o Melancholia: ―the melancholic displays something else besides which it is lacking in mourning — an extraordinary diminution of his self-regard, an impoverishment of his ego on a grand scale. In mourning it is the world which has become poor and empty; in melancholia it is the ego itself. The patient represents his ego to us as worthless, incapable of any achievement and morally despicable; he reproaches himself, vilifies himself and expets to be cast out and punished. He abases himself before everyone and commiserates with his own relatives for being connected with anyone so unworthy….‖  clinical depression. the Edwardian Peropd: 1901-1910 QV‘s death – KE‘s death(strictly), though may extend the date to 1914 (WWI)  British Empire reached its height between 1815 and 1914: ―the sun never sets on the British Empire‖  Edwardian period full of social unrest  strikes, women adgitating for vote so as to address some of the ills, ie. Child labour, child poverty, Irish wanting home rule, push back from some of the colonies  Queen Victoria died in 1901 having reigned for 64 years. Her son, Edward VII, was King from 1901-10 For the upper classes, the Edwardian period was ―la belle époque.‖ Edward as known for his excess with regard to food, wine and women, and the decade reflected this. - A government that is concerned with maintaining the luxuries for the upper class where as the population wants fair wages, egalitarianism, equal voting rights etc  great split in world views - Art Nouveau  take out of galleries, make everyday objects into works of art  makes more accessible.  Expensive to produce, no one could afford it except for Edward and the wealthy.  Organic form, not angular, draws the viewer in, exaggerated reference to the natural world  flowing.  Redefining idea of what ordinary objects are. Boer War (South Africa) 1899-1902 - wanted independence, Brits won. Took 3 years to defeat what was essentially unorganized farmers. 14,000 brit soldiers died of disease. 58000 cases of typhoid fever  population looked weak, empire looked weak. - took this that the British were becoming weak  decline in power - Eugenics: eu = well; genes = born: ―the study of all agencies under social control which can improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations‖ (Francis Galton, 1883)  race degeneration.  Syphilis epidemic  punish prostitutes  ‗cure‘ at the time was mercury  Worried that if we could evolve, we could also devolve  Measures for ameliorating poverty.  Birthcontrol came out of this, diaphragm.  hope, help people out of poverty by allowing them to choose when they wanted to have children  Eugenic marriage 1904: when a young man and a young woman offering themselves for marriage can produce certified records of their ancestry backed to 3 generations … free from syphilis, melancholia, poperism, criminality, epilepsy, prostitution, etc. can prove all other forms of defectiveness, degeneracy, deafness … then it can truly be said that a union can be a eugenic marriage. (believed these were passed on genetically)  The health of the individual body is linked to the health of the national body linked to the health of the imperial body  ‗Mothers allowance‖ paid the right kind of people to have as many children as possible Combined with: - Social purity and social hygiene movements: attempted to control sexually (for ―social‖ read ―sexual‖)  to increase the health of the nation  covered disease, sexuality  wanted to create a race of Britain‘s who were going to be strong, carry the empire with them  thought young men were becoming ‗soft‘  boy scouts from this.  men in city had too easy a life.  Powell 1908: real men…understand living out in the jungles… know how to look after health, strong and plucky… ready to face any danger… always keen to help eachother.. take lives and hands… to help country… duty to king, fellow countrymen or employers… -Charles Darwin, Origin of Species (1859)  ―survival of the fittest‖: Herbert Spencer. Lead to Social Darwinism, acting in concert with the notion of eugenics, which argued that:  Darwin had shown that competition in the struggle of survival resulted in survival of the fittest. The rich are simply better adapted to survive than the poor and, therefore, should be encouraged to breed. Others should be discouraged.  Poor having babies ( but they were sickly); rich not having children, thought to be infertile due to urbanization. .‘. imperialism was under threat, this threat lead to the attempt to control the populous - growing fear of war, of ppl wanting to assert their independence policing the body became the focus as an attempt of social control…  see Eugenic tree (?) - Eugenics is always racist, notion of the ideal race behind it. Thomas Hardy 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM -Human agency is nothing compared to the social and cosmic forces, the laws of society and the forces of nature in which humans live.  The human is weak in comparison with these social forces  The natural sources in the world are largely indifferent to human suffering.  No god, no one in charge, not a conspiracy theorists  simply social and national forces, humanity is weak in comparison.  Speakers often wish there was a controlling force  god, immanent will , some patern or design for the universe  find that the world operates by chance, something totally alieatory, not designed.  Doubt and skepticism -Natural or social forces which are indifferent to human aspirations -Great Chain of Being  everything has its place  scientific discoveries change the idea of where humans might lie on chain of being  destructive to those controlling things, those who were religions  this idea that man was created in gods image was foundation for a lot, and Darwin‘s theory of us evolving from apes created incredible turmoil  .‘. religion in decline  primacy of humans in the cosmos Darwin: all species are descended through a long, gradual process of modification from a small number of very different species in the remote past (ie. God did not make all species as they are now) Freud: much of what we do is as a result of unconscious drives; we are shaped by forces outside our own consciousness Marx: workers are alienated from their own labour under capitalism. Ideology hides the process of exploitation that keeps workers disempowered Einstein: something as seemingly stable and reliable as the chair you are sitting on is onl as stable and reliable as its velocity will allow it to be. - created an anxiety about human being‘s place in the world.  what is there to rely on? - The span of human life, and the extent of human power is minute against the natural world and forces, against these human beings are nothing, like flies, small, powerless - there is not natural significance to human life as there is no god who‘s intentions have been made to manifest in human creation - human beings have reason, read, write, think  somehow that means God gave us special status in the universe…  these theories took that notion of specialness away. Bad things just happen, good things just happen … they just happen, no design ‗Hap‘ - what do you do when you realize that our lives are governed by chance/ circumstance -vengeful god.  myth, one that the speaker laments.  at least know where it‘s coming from - instead world is run by crass casualty, dicing time.  even time is a gambler, based on luck. - petrarchan sonnet  speaking of no structure, in an extremely strict form.  Attempt to create structure where no structure exists  only art can do this, can perhaps create a kind of structure, there is no god to create one.  If…then…but…not so… structured in a logical argument (modus ponens?) - uses archaic, unusual, words, neologisms  chaos within form. - freedom… ‗Neutral Tones‘ - ash tree symbolism  symbol of happiness  in winter, death of this - a remembrance of a scene in which the speaker cannot get out of his head every painful detail of this moment - a scene recollected - the scene and the emotion are one in the same  whenever he thinks of the pain of love, he conjures up this scene. - scenery to be the emotion of pain. - trying to make it something manefestible, but cannot The Darkling Thrush  Elegy: lament for the dead, a person; lament for the transience of human life; lament for the times past (As in this poem)  values eroded, generations killed in war  lament for loss  Classical Elegies shaped by recognizable pattern: recognition of the loss and the effect that it has on the speaker of the poem… the grief is worked through in the course of the poem  The poem‘s mood begins to rise again  Bit like stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance  Does the speaker in this poem find any consolation by the end of the poem, or is this a stage that completely eludes him  See note on freud in Imperialism  melancholia  turn grief inwards upon themselves, so they feel worthless, inferior, self critical.  In between state  inbetween house and garden, the wood that is beyond the gate,  between wild and civilization  On the one hand we have the promise of a new year, on the other, what we have infornt of us is deadness  it‘s winter (jan) the land is dead  .‘. the turn of the year is more in tune with the death of what was before  Imagery of haunting  ppl, the 19 thcentury haunting this particular moment  Dead but moving  spectral  Fervorless  lacking energy, leaning on gate, looking at the world around him rather than exploring it physically  Regular rhythm in the poem  iambic tetrameter  jaunty rhythm; odd.  Dark tone  jaunty rhythm.  Sense of action with the shorter action at line 17 onward.  Thrush  frail, small, old  singing even song  evening church service in the Anglican communion  Why use a religious term to describe what the thrush is doing?  ironic, the thrush has hope because he has religious belief, but those who do not have religious belief know what actually is going on.  The bird being a voice for something possible transcendent  See ode to a nightinggale (Keats) in poetics anthology   th  Important that he is drawing on a poem from the 19 century  Lyre  associated with gods from classical mytholofgy  lyric  lyric poetry; thought to represent or have a connection in Greek mythology with nature  Broken strings  a broken connection; if the lyre or the lyric poem of Keats somehow gave the possibility of the sense of the transcendent, something eternal, that is broken.  mourning not only the death of a century but the death of a tradition.  Last stanza  indicate lack of connection. o Sees no empirical evidence for such joy. o Associating self with this haunting, with being barely alive. o No sense of transcendence here, instead is perfectly logical o The conditional ‗could‘ as opposed to the imperative ‗can‘, ‗do‘.  the bird may have some information, but the speaker is unaware of some blessed hope, has not been communicated to him/ humanity  could see the joy but doesn‘t. Convergence of the Twain  Sense of god or predestination?  Could be considered an elegy.  loss of the Titanic.  If there is an immanent will,does it act at random, is that being like the vengeful god of hap, or more like crass casualty of hap?  ―God himself couldn‘t sink this ship‖  arrogance, .‘. no life boats  Immanent will/ being built iceberg?  One of the most predicted events (Dreams, predictions…)  Arrogance in naming Titanic  Titans.  Hardy wrote this poem for a souvenir program for a charity event for disaster relief. Possibly for the victims families of the titanic and the survivors.  Knows this cultural sense of predestination when writing this piece.  Not a sentimental poem, not about the dead  All of the weath is still there with it sunk, but is meaningless... none of their opulence means anything anymore.  The wealthy on this voyage being parodied? (3)  all their wealth means nothing now.  Maybe the wealthy were equally grotesque as the sea worm that the glittery mirror now reflects.  Set up as a sexual union.  Ship as a she, the Immanent Will preparing a sinister mate ―intimate welding of their later history‖  last stanza o Ship on maiden voyage. The Secret Agent — Conrad (1907) 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM - Was sailor. Orphan by age 11. Parents were anarchists, agitating for Polish liberation from Russia. Father was leader of group ―the Reds‖ who advocated for Polish independence via violent means. Both parents arrested and exiled for social subversions. - This novel touches upon social subversion and anarchy. ―The only legitimate basis of creative work is in the courageous recognition of all the irreconcilable antagonisms that make our life so enigmatic, so burdensome, so fascinating, so dangerous — so full of hope‖ (NYT, 1901) Antisyzygy: ability to hold two contrary ideas at once Anarchy: Gk an or a  without; archos = ruler. Contrary to authority. Not necessarily absence of order, but absence of rule.  Not a novel that is going to reconcile any of these antagonisms.  Idea of loss of moral absolutes.  At the time the social world in England was in a state of upheval, things were anarchic, lots of social unrest.  Worry that the government would lose control and that somehome anarchists would take over. Partially caused by econimic issues, gap between classes.  Questioning of human beings posistion in the universe visavi god, evolution, mathematics  create a fear of anarchy  if we don‘t know the absolutes…  Hole created by bomb blast in Greenwich in attempt to blow up the Greenwich observatory.  see back of book for newspaper account.  Idea of blowing up time itself.  Plays with time at the beginning  as time is out of joint at the meridian at Greenwich.  big hole in the middle of the novel as in the middle of Greenwich.  A lot of irony, and play with language, and this notion of what a centre is.  Going to explore irreconcilable differences. o The police who are supposed to be the guardians of social order and control are corrupt and self serving.  In this novel the anarchists are the ones who want to correct social harmony, and the police want to harm it.  P45.  Crimes are committed, not punished by police, by society, in a social order o What is a crime anyway? And by whose standards to we judge? What constitutes a crime?  P48. Anarchists trying to change the liberalness/ leanientness of the society into something more controlled  Socialist, in line iwht the proletariat  Want to scare middle class by blowing up Greenwich observatory  Anarchy attacks all forms of authority  law, state, education…  Not absence of order, absence of rule ***  Mr. Vladimir thinks the lackness/ individualism in the British isles is scandalous.  Only option left when everything else has been tried  loss of hope to make change in the econimic or political system.  overturning the whole system  Only true anarchist in the novel seems the be the professor.  Winnie is the only one who actually murders. o Wanders around with a detinator in his pocket. Going to blow things up if anyone gets too close to him.  Reference to mastrubation  anarchist unto himself, operating on his own principles  always has hand in pocket. - he‘s self- involved  program o anarchy that is absoutley clear in the text o Also one who is truthsayer in novel  realizes the police and the anarchists play the same sort of games, and that they are games. Is the one in the novel who‘s called ‗moral‘ though he‘s the one who wants to blow things up. o Only one whose actions match his personal code. Who has a program and intends to stick to it, everyone else gets distracted off their path.  What is moral? What are ethics in this case?  London in this novel as much a character in this novel as any of the named characters a city of secrets, confrontations, augmentation. Read descriptions closely  will give clue as to what is going on in the text, the narrators vision of ideas of society.  P.44… narrative in this passage moves from carriage to sun to mr verlock‘s coat  small to large to very small again  What is trying to be suggested by these carriages with a woman wearing skin of ―beasts‖ with a woman‘s face emerging.  Emphasizes what she‘s wearing over woman in carriage herself. Barbarism. The notion of human ascendancy over animals  british imperialism taking over countries  Blood shot London sun, an unpleasant, unhealthy idea, but then describes a pleasant scene under it.  P47. Connotation of organic anarchy  city itself participating with a broad wink  houses aren‘t numbered right, streets not named right.  strayed houses. o Giving a wink and a nudge, verbal irony in this text. The narrator is watching Mr Verlock walk through London, commenting on the house numbers not corresponding to the ones around it  suggest something lose in London, that the houses wake up and shuffle away, btu they of course, don‘t o Something is alive here, things aren‘t quite right  P.142 o Notion of a consuming city in all senses of the world, it consumes all who walk in it. The dark is not just dark, it is greasy, slimy, soot, and drops of water. o There‘s something palapable even about the air they‘re breathing. o City‘s gigantic mouth consuming everything that goes into it (see Kurtz in Hart of Darknes)  Trauma [wound in greek] in the text: Freud  writing after WWI was seeing a lot of men who came back after the war with ‗war neurosis‘. Idea of wound never heals  keep dreaming about tragedy they saw; why if this is so miserable, why are they bringing it up, why will the wound not heal?  Repetition in the novel. o Whatever happened to these soldiers in the war was out of their control. But there was an attemot in reliving that moment again and again to gain some kind of control  Looking at a novel set in a traumatic world where even the houses don‘t stay stable, everything is in flux. Author‘s note  P34: talking about creative process –> cruel devouer of mans night o London is lie a graveyard, where souls are living. o Telling us how he came up with story. o Evockative language lie w/in story itself  P36: this is winnie‘s story o Think about how and if it is winnies story ****  If so what does that do the background of anarchy, and politics and the possible explosions. Language  whether or not language can communicate Paynim  Pagan Hyperborean  classical Ankylosis  abnormal fusion of bones Mansuetude  gentleness Hieratic  priestly Villegiature - a trip to the country for a holiday (FSF) Refection  refreshment Charabia  unintelligible language. - novel also about communication. - Why would an author use words like those above? Through the language being used, there is an example between the reader and the text which also happens between the characters within the text. - Have to work to understand the language. - Narrator doesn‘t seem to speak the same language as the characters. - Distance between the narrative voice and the character. Distance between the narrative voice and the reader  creates huge amount of verbal irony - Sometimes tremendous amount of sarcasm - Language sometimes inappropriate for the action. Cabbie: Virgils Silenus (companion to Dionysis) Winnie: Penelope Verloc: Odysseus Ossipon: Apollo - uses language of heroic quest, of heroism.  fixed epithets, Homeric epithets. - Huge amount of very black humour. - See Stevie being shoveled up by constibles ―he‘s all there‖  Stevie wasn‘t all there whne he was alive  irony - Disjointed narrative voice. - Any act of charity or kindness is always turned back on them. - Charity house - so Stevie is better off in life, but ends up better off in death as being taken care of Verloc leads to his death; Charity house makes special accomodatinos for her because she is not childless and widowed, but ends up being so.  foreshadowing - Winnie is the one who plants the idea in Verloc‘s head that Stevie is devoted to Stevie  so devoted to him that he would go through fire for Verloc, and… ends up doing so. - Irony, joking, literalizing of expressions.  play with language. Narrative as web: Etymology of the word ―text‖ is tissue; something woven Readers should ‗perceive the fabric in its texture, in the interlacing of codes, formulae, and signifieers, in the midst of which the subject places him/herself and is undone like a spider that comes to dissolve in its own web.‖ (Roland Barthes, ―Text, Discourse, Ideology‖) Verbal Irony: in which a person says or writes one thing and means another, or uses words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of the literal meaning. Structure: mirrors fragmentation of society; no linerairty; play with time. - city is like a web, difficult to find way around - web of novel, interconnections, ppl meet, talk, but a failure of language, failure to communicate  anarchists are completely self absorbed, don‘t listen to one another, speak in monologues, speak over one another, no attempt to debate, not really speaking to one another  listening to their stories and their incredibly hytperbolic language is what makes Stevie so upset, and leads him to believe he‘s enganged in such a humanitarian mission when he goes to set the bomb.  There‘s no good or evil. Nobody comes out of the text particularily good or bad. World is composed with Secrets and Secret Agents. A secret is something you can‘t communicate  Language seems inappropriate. If you have a completely fragmented community, how do you get fragments of that community together when they cannot communicate with one another  When ppl speak with one another they are talking at crosspurposes all the time  P93/6:distanced language when describing them. Not being asked to identify with them. Asked to give a kind of dispassionalte, distant sort of view of the professor and of the police.  A lot of dispair in the text. Lack of communication has its consequences  leads to despair, suicide  Secrets  society being fragmented. Always a threat that somebody has a secret  a paranoid universe.  Outdoors becomes a threat. Even the air is dangerous, peoples faces are described as listless, emotionless, passive.  Kafkaesque nightmare world.  P43: Stevie is the one who says anything important in this listless, sticky, slimey world: ―bad world for poor people‖ centerpiece for the text, for the text morality. It s Setvie who is the ―idiot‖ who says the true thing, who sums up the world that he is living in.  See Stevie‘s insanity with how Nitche became insane  whipping of horse. Nihilism.  P65:comment on secrets? Father is a ‗good man‘ but secretly beats Stevie at home. o Puts blame on Stevie, when not his fault Novel with hole in plot Novel without a hero. No absolutism making our reading of the text fragmented as well. Not jut a response to post 19c and WWI but a response to language and reading. Connection with Hardy and his bleak view of the world. Cannibalism. p73, p79 Given that he uses this phrase, word, numerous times, is modern industrial society consuming its populous? Is there something else going on here, what does it mean to be cannibalistic? Why is it a phrase that comes up again, and again, and again. In this novel, ppl are reduced to their component parts.  to fragments. Everyone in this city is literally or figuratively Cesare Lombroso (70; 280): biological determinism — behaviour can be determined by physical characteristics  Very interested in the study of phrenology  the study of the bumps on the head  Certain people were born criminals.  by looking at ppl you could predict what the person was ie. All prostitutes/ vagrants had certain physiological features which would indicate what they were. While Darwin wrote about evolution, Lombroso and others theorized that maybe some human beings were in a state of devolution, or degeneracy.  In the novel Lombroso was put down by the anarchists  but then this raises the idea of degeneracy and degeneration Those seemed civilized had evolved. All others had devolved or degenerated. One could identify a degenerate by a physical examination. Among the traits were:  Unusually short or tall stature  A small head but a large face  A small and sloping  a receding hairline  wrinkes on the forehead or face  large sinus cavities or bumps on the face  large, protruding ears  bumps on the head, particularly in the Destructiveness centre above the left ear  a strong jaw line, fleshy lips, sloping shoulders ,unibrow, long arms, pointy/ snubbed fingers/ toes… etc - was a eugenicist  eugenics is very racist ( see features that indicate degeneration) In SA the physical body is blown up, associated with a cannibal feast, serves as a symbol of the political and social worlds, is used as a measure of the ―fitness‖ of an individual  49: Verloc as ―corpulent and fat‖  the anarchists all have very peculiar bodies on which the narrator dweels: fat, emaciated, bald, missing teeth, pouchy eyes, bulging cheeks  grotesque -> 66-7 Mikhaik Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World Carnivalesque and the Grotesque Body  Medieval carnival: takes place before Lent o Kind of letting off of steam o Transgression  at the time of carnival everyone is assumed to be on a level playing field o Gets rid of social notions of hierarchy o A temporary liberation of social order o A licensed liberation  Celebrates a temporary (and licensed) liberation  Suspension of hierarchy (clowns become kings; king become clowns)  When people dress up the bodily apparent is the grotesque.  Images of the grotesque body concentrate on the exaggeration of certain parts of the body  those that are in connection with the outside world  mouth, nose, ears bowels, genitals  areas of contact with the world  Grotesque body transcends its own limits In opposition the smooth, beautiful, clothed, complete, proportionate, spiritually suggestive classical body  Grotesque associated with animals, becoming, the ‗low‘  Connection with everything that is earthly as opposed to spiritual.  Grotesque body: transgresses its own limits, open, unfinished ,exaggerated, monstrous Carnival is temporary; the prevailing order will reassert itself after a finite period In SA, however, the grotesque has become permanent. There is no return to the norm from which carnival deviates; the grotesque, disordered, uhly and upsde down world is the norm  People who are normal are degenerates, or idiots (Stevie)  Ugly world.  In carnival you can rely on the fact that however topsy-turvy things are, it‘s only temporary, things will return back to normal  Where as in Conrad the world is stuck in the grotesque. o People are described as fragments.  people are not whole here  they are bits and pieces .  played with a bit in the notion of Stevie blowing himself up.   Bodies are used as symbols  the political body…  Ch 8 Separates winnie‘s family from the rest, a domestic case  Stevie is already dead  Stevie is the compass of kindness in the text  no good deed goes unpunished  This is a kind of forshadowing for the rest of the novel  journey Winnie will take towards her own death, the wanderings of Mr verloc towards his own death.  Verloc pumps him with tales of injustice that Stevie is eager to follow him  Stevie: Character with a strict moral code, but whenever his feelings/ sensibilities are aroused he has no boundaries, he‘s too sensitive, he can‘t keep himself away from things that make him upset unlike sister Winnie -> things don‘t bear much looking into o As soon as he feels strongly about something he can‘t speak  language fails, communication fails  says the most clever things in the novel but he can barely stammer them out  the moral compass in the story can hardly get out the sensitive feelings he has.  Winnie‘s mother  nameless. Why? o Widow. Subsumed into her dead husband‘s identity o Supplements Winies identity  Stevie kind of gets ignored as his judgemnets of good and evil do not have place in this grotesque world o 157: narrator using complicated, fine language, Stevie can only manage ―poor brute‘ ‗poor people‘ ‗shame‘ o stevie‘s epiphany moment  get a comment on the nature of the family even within the domestic confines o keep being told mr verloc loves his wife ―like a husband should‖ o 149: essentially slandering her daughter  by compressed lips, by silence, conveys she‘s been mistreated, abused in the home \ The domesticity in this scene is not comforting  the world inside is not less cannabilistic 154: Stevie to cabman: cabman is the only one who doesn‘t look upon Stevie as an object for derision  even then the cabby is associated with silenus, which is associated with dysenus (sp) who is drunk all the time… and the cabbie ends up in the pum  the one person who pays attention to Stevie is a drunk.  No matter what he does, he‘s not being paid attention to by anyone. Poetry of WWI 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM - The war that created literary modernism - The Great War - technology on a more primitive scale than seen in WWII  rifles, bayonets, cart horses, tanks (they would get stuck in mud), cannons, lots of gasses (mustard, chlorine  blistered skin, tore up lungs) -War of men, horses, trenches, hand to hand combat - still using carrier pigeons - up close and personal - June 28, 1914: assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his pregnant wife Sophie in Sarajevo, Bosnia by 19 year old Gavrilo Princip  catalyst that starte the war.  Was heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire, next in succession to be emperor and king of Hungary  Went to Sarajevo to expect truce, and was shot by a student Gavrilo Principe  part of a group of revolutionaries - Ferdinand was heir to the Hapsburg empire ^^ ** in the wake of the assassination, A-H wanted to subdue Serbia and was backed by German. A-H broke off the relations with Serbia which, they thought, had been behind the assassination (no proof was ever found). Three days later, A-H declared war  after that was like dominos * Russia (who saw self as a protector of the slavic states) threatened A-H: Germany declared war on Russia (1 August, 1914) * France supported Russia; Germany declared war of France * Germany entered Belgium on the way to invade France ; Britain declared war on Germany - no one actually wanted a war. Scholars suggest that this was bluffing, that somehow it was about pride and measurement and the problem was that once the bluff had been called pride dictated that they had to go on with the war. -from beginning the war was a litany of mistakes, and blunders, cost millions of people their lives as a result - in England everybody said it would be over by Christmas. Idea was good and justice would prevail. This was a just war, the forces of good would win out over the forces of evil. - One of the greatest losses in Britain was of the romanticism of justice, heroism, honour, and chivalry  things ppl thought were just of common sense  the war changed that. - patriotism at the beginning of the war was running rampant, no conscription until 1916 - Much of the early poetry defends that Britain is fighting on the side of God, that justice will prevail  couldn‘t imagine what would happen  idea that all you need to win a war is a just argument  if they would only listen it would all be ok. Rupert Brook ―the Soldier‖  Good idea of sense of justice, of patriotism, of there being something called a ‗just conflict‘  ‗I am England, because I am fighting for England‖  no distinction between himself and the country he is fighting for  Imperialist  even his body when he dies will take over the soil of the country he dies in for England.  England is the mother country, it‘s Britannia, fighting for England is the thing you need to do as a good citizen of England.  Sonnet talking about sacrifice that will allow England to continue, so he sees himself that even when he‘s dead his death will help England go on  A poem of martyrdom, poem could be used as English propaganda  Sense of this cause being blessed by God The Most popular pre-War British poetry was called Georgian after King George V, 1910 – 1936 ―It laked contact with science, and industry, its emotions were gentlemanly and restrained; it enthused about the trivial details of rural life; its vocabulary was artificially romantic and its metre was tediously orthodox. It lacked the vigor and the social purpose that was being shown in contemporary prose‖  of poetry  fiction is doing something quite different from the poetry at the time. Fiction addresses , responds.  Poetry read by the leisure class, people who read it enjoyed that it was upbeat - sentiment in Brooks‘ poetry used for propaganda  does well to bring people into the war inorder to raise patriotic fervour, to raise money that the war requires. White Feather campaigne  women walked around with white feathers symbolizing cowardice  women passed a man not in uniform gave him the feather to symbolize his cowardice  No conscription  propaganda worked so well - Women couldn‘t vote cos weak  were awarded vote in 1918 because of their work during the war, assuming the men‘s positions, proving their strength. July 1 1916: Battle of the Somme  Believed to be the worst day in British history  Believed that if they could capture this piece of land, they would win the war  Brits encouraged raids before the battle began.  Result of that was that the Germans strengthened their trenches and forces (40ft deep trenches)  For 5 days prior to the Somme offencive beginning the allies bombed the hills Germans occupied, the ground was torn up, muddy  It‘s pouring rain, its up hill, it‘s all muddy -> get order to go  People in trenches were working class who couldn‘t afford to buy their kids commissions to get themselves up  At 7 am they marched carrying 66lb packs plus artillery  uphill, in the rain, through the mud  Order to go over the top caused hysteria as they knew they would drown in the mud  Sergants ordered to shoot any able bodied man who could move but wouldn‘t  Germans waited until they got close enough then mowed them down, or waited for them to drown in the mud  In one day 60 000 men died. 20 000 wounded  Lasted until November, by that point 1 000 000 men had been killed.  When news of the Somme broke it it was hard to maintain the same attitudes of it being a just war.  Disillusionment amongst soldiers was particulary bad esp when they were sent home on leaves  When they got home they discovered that ppl didn‘t know very much about what they were going through (censored press and journalist)  Propaganda machine was such that there was no news that the country got en masse  The churche‘s position was in support of the war  Many soldiers said they had no quarrel with the ‗enemy‘ o Christmas story  sang carols, played soccer, exchanged gifts . - most of the poetry in the war reflects the sort of despair for dying for no reason, hopelessness. - People felt betrayed by their own country  which contributed to the disillusionment Poetry is important as a document, not as poetry W.B. Yeats: Owen‘s poetry is ― all blood, dirt and sucked sugar stick‖ ; Rosenberg‘s poetry is ―windy rhetoric‖; ―passive suffering is not a theme for poetry.‖  Is it just ―we know war is hell‖ but ―is the poetry of war doing something else besides just suggesting that war is hell‖ Sentimentalism: individual experience (as opposed to divine guidance) is the source of all knowledge and values. Feelings are necessary un making moral choices.  Something one tends to look down on.  How often sentimentalism is used to create social change. Modernists: aim to represent the world is a consciously literary language; texts whose aim was to change the world and which were written in a democratic language which would have popular appeal did not qualify as works of art  Responding to the war with much more distance, much more cynicism, prejudice of what makes high literature and low literature. Aiming for an elite reader/ audience who will understand the intellectual basis of lit. War poets: writing in a way of bringing it to consciousness to the public at home  Essentially attempting an intervention  probably why using sentiment to reach the broadest possible audience. Where the heightened emotion comes from  responding to what they saw around them The creation and idealization of the past  p 1991: David Jones War poets coming out of a Georgian tradition. Edward Thomas: As the Team’s Head Brass Lots of soldiers who went out to fight, died within the first two days. Set in England: in an England conscious of the war, that men are dying The landscape is a peaceful one: asked to compare the landscape at home, to the landscape of the battlefield  As peaceful as the landscape is, there is a sense of a longing for the past before this has all happened, is in mourning  Lovers doing something ‗loverlike‘ in the woods.  Ploughing land, form of rebirth  Lovers going to have sex also form of rebirth  = sense of something positive and hopeful  there‘s a continuity, there‘s something that‘s still going on that has been going on forever (the tilling of the land etc)  sounds like ordaniry prose, an ordinary conversation, doesn‘t sound like a poem though largely in iambic pentameter  sounds more casual  just reported, nothing sentimental here, nothing emotional. Why is this a war poem?  Juxtaposition of nostalgia and fear  1916 year it was written is the first year of conscription  transitional poem. Siegfried Sassoon ‘They’ Satirizes generals, but is also not very keen on those who stay at home who are willfully blind, to the politicians who voted for the war Is pretty brutal. Signed up as soon as the war was declaired, was wealthy enough to buy a commission. In 1917 was wounded, when recovering, wrote a letter that was a protest against the war and commented on the political errors and insincerities that the men were fighting for  this letter made it to the house of commons where it got him accused for treason. His friend got him to see a medical board, which declared him as psychologically unstable Was sent to a psychiatric institution to recover Who is doing this to the soldiers? The germans may be firing the guns, but who made them be there  they is specific yet general enough  People are named  personal Religious aspect  May be one of sassoons comments because the church supported the war  The divine presences as pushing forward… can‘t rationalize the loss… god‘s strange … a cliché doesn‘t really mean anything  Language, words of comfort, become insignificant in the face of what soldiers have been through Glory of Women Sonnet More so an attack on the propaganda then an attack of women on the homefront?  White feather campaign, etc. ‗you make us shells‘  believing in the propaganda makes us shells cos you don‘t know what we‘re going through, and also you‘re contributing to the problem by making the shells that are dropped during the war women united, whether you‘re british or german, your son, husband, brother isn‘t coming home Isaac Rosenberg: Louse Hunting An inept, absent minded soldier  served for 22mo straight in the trenches as a result. Wasn‘t an aristocrat, enlisted because of poverty, didn‘t sign up because he felt a draft ofpatriotism, he was poor…. Was a way to make money… not the same kind of vision of Sassoons, of there being an ideological, propaganda cause of having to fight, he was a poet before going . not so much a warrior poet, was a poet who was in the war. Calling up a demonic, witches Sabbath. Free verse, no regular metrical pattern, rhythmical pattern  imitating the chaos and lack of reason in the scene  in hunting lice that woke them up Some are burning shirts, running candle up and down the seams At war with the lice as well. Aw war with their own bodies   Half funny, half tragic  So ordinary, lice is so little, yet in the face of this huge propaganda machine and the killing ,trenches and the mud, there‘s lice, and they can‘t stop itching them ,can‘t get rid of them . The supreme flesh is not immune to the supreme l Elegy: poems about grief, or loss  Loss of ideals  Loss of supremacy  So even in something like Louse Hunting : Tragicomic: here are the sons of the british empire being woken and made crazy by these little bugs o Loss: loss of human supremacy, the soldiers themselves are fighting with their own bodies, their bodies are betraying them  Dance of death, metaphor for the physical battle in war  Foreshadow of what could happen to them in war, acting it out in the trenches  No foreseeable end to the mourning, to the war.  Some are conscious lamentations, mourning  Trying to write about the war emotionally, but respond to the war intellectually  Grieving needs time.  something that they don‘t have in these warpoets Wilfred Owen He was most criticized for sentimentalism Was injured in war, suffered from shell shock. Was suggested to work on poetry by doctors to get over shellshock.  May help him work his way through it, but has to revisit and relive it  trauma “Anthem for Doomed Youth” Petrarchan Sonnet: octave and sestet: has rhyme scheme of an English sonnet.  Attempt to put some order on the disorder of wars.  Mixing of forms: sense of distance and familiarity  A poem about funerals, and battlefield graveyards Anthem: National Anthem, Sung in church, not typically mournful, a song of praise.  Something ironic of the use of anthem in the title o The irony points to the tragedy. About doomed youth, not about national pride, calls into question that whole notion of praise. Doom: when you‘re dead you‘r done, when you‘re doomed, you‘re moving towards death no matter what; fatalistic. Passing-bell: if you heard the bell, you were supposed to pray for the soul of the person that was about to be dead. What is an appropriate funeral for someone who is dying as cattle on the battle fields, what consolation can come to those who have died on the battlefield.  They died far from the social convention of funeral rights as they would have happened in England, are not available to them  Even traditional responses to death are not appropriate when they died in war  Cattle: herded into the war and shot down, de humanized; no appropriate service Commentary being made on religion  Associating the machinery of war, the weapons, with the words we would use to describe the funeral  The church supported the war  You can pray but no one will hear you, the church won‘t help you here  The weapons of war are mocking the religious, funeral rights  Commentary on the place of religious rituals in this war  The weapons of war have taken over religion, because the only thing that matters is death and destruction.  Celebration of life, gods grace, none of that is available here Octave: acts out the battle  L3. Onomatopoeia : rapid rattle, you actually hear it.  Trying not to just report, but to create the condition, that even if you‘re far from war, you can hear what is going on.  The number of caesuras: is jarring like war, war is not smooth; causes you to visually think Technology that is mad: the shells are demented  Separating man from machine, the machine is mad, not the men  Removal of guilt, the soldiers don‘t want to do the killing, by personifying the weapons it makes it thieir fault; less the human agency, they are the viction L8: move back to home  Representation of what will happen at morals Sestet:  The language slows down, vowels are longer  Back to image of the funeral  Image of the choir boys at the funeral holding the candles  It‘s not the technology of the battlefield he focuses on  Focuses on human mourning, the physical evidences in the people that become the memorial  It‘s not the candles but the tears, not the flowers but the tenderness of patient minds, not the pall, but the palour that memorialize: it‘s the human emotion  A very physical response, these are the memorializing for the soldiers Drawing of the blinds: pull down the blinds to show there are those mourning inside  But also, blind as turning a blind eye, something you hide behind, blinds shut out the world, something you hide behind  Sense that even though one may be memorialized ni the memories of the living, people forget, people draw down the blinds, they shut it out  There‘s a kind of tension here, whether or not there is a consolation that the dead will be remembered forever, or whether they will be forgotten “Dulce Et Decorum Est‖ response to a kind of ‗jingleism‘ of jesse pope, as a type of propaganda  it‘s not noble, it‘s just painful  more painful because it is something you go through alone  when you are in that agony, it is you suffering and nobody can do anything about it can hear and see the battlefield the visual imagery is really acute, and painful. First 8 lines: made more acute, because you have to compare your functioning senses with the soldiers unfunctioning senses: blind, lain, bloodshot… etc  Wants reader to hear and to see.  Give us a sense of community: they are as a group,. They are all tired ,they are united by the fatigue, the physical damage, their senses, the lamness, the blindless, deaf to the shells, can hardly stand, are blood-shod, bent double  Not because they have been injured by the other side: this is the price of the fighting, their own side has done this to them, they haven‘t been injured this is what the fighting, just going into the battle has done to them  The body is the text on which the war is written; very concerned with the physical  this is where you see the war written Next 6 lines:  Gives way to a frenzie  There‘s a gas attack  An ecstasy of fumbling, normally something happy, excessive emotion o A high of fear, self preservation  heightened emotion, but isn‘t bliss, is a sense of doomedness. o Terrified that they‘re going to die o Don‘t have time to help their fellow, are doing this alone. Nothing anyone can do but watch o Speaker watched through the gas mask and watches through this green haze as his compatriot is dying, and there is nothing he can do about it Next 2 lines: ―In all my dreams…‖  The trauma that the speaker feels is repeated  memorializing of panic, has to save himself  Innate selfishness, has to save himself, can‘t help his friend at all, relives this situation over and over again  Is traumatized by the experience and also by his inability to help  Not dead yet, thrown compatriot in a cart back to their base, the gargling, and the misery of the process of dying  Scene is up close and personal.  The speaker hears and sees and feels the effects of the gas on his fellow soldier, subsequently he dreams of this over and over and over again  The line he addresses to ‗my friend‘ (the jingalistic writer, or anyone left behind to anyone left behind who supports the war) o Anyone who does not believe it isn‘t hideous, that it is sweet to die for ones country: there is nothing sweet in this Sentimentalism:  Howards End (1910) — E.M. Forster 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM - “Condition of England” novel  Novels which seek to engage with contemporary social and political issues: focus on the representation of class, gender and labour relations; concern with social unrest and growing antagonism between rich and poor.  the social consequences of the industrial revolution  in this novel, the industrial revolution doesn‟t come into it per se, but the effect, the effect of money which is made, „new money‟ vs „old money‟, those who are upstarts who make their money in trade, those whose money is ancient and comes down to them from a long line of people - City novel; counter to the title which is a name of a house in the country  The issue of the city and what the city means  The city vs the country appears a lot in the text  The result of industrialization  What is the city now, what is the country now  What do we do with poverty  How do we manage poverty in the city  What changes is indurtrialization making in the way which the city is talked about - Binary oppositions: pair of terms or concepts that are theoretical opposites  One of the characterisitcs of Western thought; one of the two terms assumes a role of dominance over the other. A way in which our culture creates hierarchies (white/black; rational/ emotional; man/ woman)  Why does the one that comes after seem to be a little lesser than scope  Try to explode the binarys, look at them, figure them out, and see whether or not the text is actually questioning the absolutism of that binary - Dialectic: a theory of the nature of logic  Determination of “truth” is arrived at by the association of a teory (thesis); its opposition (antithesis): the synthesis of the two to form a third theory  The difference beteen the two is the sense of dialectical movement: out of an original paor: the dialectic produces a third term  Is there any points in the novel where there seem to be absolute opposites come into a synthesis, or are exploded - Class is really important  Schleigals are upper middle class, they don‟t work  The Wilcoxes work  Bast is a clerk, and he has to work for a living, he wants to better himself Schlegels Wilcoxes Culture Industry money Progressive (liberal) Conservative History traditio Present/ future/ modernity Country City Feminine Masculine Socialism Capitalism “Old money” New money German English Ideal Material Interior Exterior Where does Leonard Bast sit in all of this?  By mistake he ends up associated with the Schegels with some bad consequences - Does the narrative voice take sides? - Do the tensions/ oppositions break down - History: is the relationship between past, present and future continuous? A flow of cause and effect? - OR is it discontinous and disruptive? Are there ruptures in the flow of history out of which something new, not entirely determined by the past can spring? - Is it a bit of both? - Is it progressive? Do things get better? Or are they just different? - Is history somehow degenerative? Do things go backwards? A decline from the past - Is history progessive? Does each moment build on and improve the one before? - Or cyclical? : “ Hegel remaarks somewhere that all great world-historic facts and personages apper, so to speak, twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the seconds as farce” — Marx What does expectation mean? - if we expect something, it is based on our experience in the past; expectation based on past information, past knowledge - Novel begins with a reference to expectation (3); if we expect something we do so because we are reading a certain replatinship between the past, present and future - Title: the end of Howard? The goal of Howard? But no apostrophe - Apostrophe indicates possession (one of the themes of the text) (whether or not a woman can own property and pass it on)  Who owns Howards End? No apostrophe, no definite possession; who was howard?; does this place mean the end of something; or what end? The end of the country life?  The Wilcox‟s seem more interested in posessions, consumerism, interested in having Howards End. Are a fairly unpleasant crude of people (aside from Mrs. Wilcox) - Mr Wilcox has taken advantage of imperialism to make his money, is both capitalist and imperialist, takes pride in that; thrives in the chaos of live in London; he and his progeny are quite literally allergic to the natural world (hay fever)  Mrs Wilcox is associate with a wisp of hay  apart form her, her whole family has hay fever - Henry is logical, organized, has specific views, criticized in text by Margaret because he has no time for art, culture, internal life, emotions, is on a forward track to by cars; his view of society is that it is a machine and that it has certain predictable outcomes (163) repetition of the word „unseen‟ and various words like „unseen‟ that seem to come up.  Represent some kind of mystical sense of understanding other people  Some sort of special sensitivity to people, unseen, and unsaid things that miss Avery, et al, some how knows to pick up on o Miss Avery some how knows to create a nursery at Howards End.  how does she know that?  How does Mrs. Wilcox know, without having ever being told, that Paul and Helen at the beginning of the novel have a connection that is broken off.  They see what is unseen by others, they understand what is unspoken by others, and it is not quite clear how this happens, or what this is.  The word unseen also means unobserved, or unnoticed  might we draw out from unseen to figure out if there is something the novel doesn‟t see? Is there something in the relationship between the Shlegels, the basts and the wilcoxes  what is unseen, unspoken, or unnoticed in the novel as a whole  is there something Forster‟s not seeing, that the novel is not seeing  is there something not being mentioned, dealt with that‟s important  that us as readers are to pick up on? o Forster playing with liberialism as both an economic system and the vague sense of progressive, open minded. Classic liberalism: Adam Smith‟s Wealth of Nations (1776)  Basic theme was that the wealth of nations and therefore the wealth and welfare of everybody was best increased by a capitalist system where there was minimal state interference  Laissez faire (i.e. non-interference of the state in th lives of the individuals).  Reinforced the social ideas of freedom which insisted on no or minimal state intervention on the grounds that any interference by the state would reduce the individual‟s freedom of action. o Neo-liberalism: why for example, people in the united states didn‟t want a national healthcare system as it would be government intervention in the lives of the citizens, when they should be doing it for themselves  Always a question of freedom  These ideas were grounded in utilitarianism (the greatest good for the greatest number). They were perfect for the newly arriving industrial middle-class, since they not only provided a critique of the protectionist closed system whereby wealth was the province of the aristocracy, but also, by the elevation of freedom to the status of a natural right.  For the Victorians, classical liberalism and its economic doctrines were considered correct no just because they worked (for the rich) but because they were morally right o Can see this in Mr. Wilcox, believes in classic liberalism o Always a bit of charged quality, based on the class system  those who are rich are deserving of being rich, those who are poor are deserving of being poor because they have not worked hard enough (purtianism, Calvinism if you work hard, God will provide) the idea that people couldn‟t get work, wasn‟t even thought of at the time.  For Victorian society, the greatest good of the greatest number did not mean the alleviation of the poor‟s poverty if it in any way interfered with the importance of the individual‟s responsibility for his actions. It would in fact be injurious t othe poor to give them any form of state assistance. The only „true‟ way of improvement of the poor‟s condition was by allowed them to face the harsh economic reality of the world and thus learn the essential moral quality of thrift o Espoused by Henry Wilcox, he has benefited from this type of system.  his freedom has been approved of, has been allowed  that his freedom encroaches on the freedom of others is a whole other problem not discussed by Forster.  At the end of Victorianism, people started to protest this. Beginning of the 20 Century: Progressive liberalism  No longer was it a fundamental of liberalism that the state should interfere as little as possible in the lives of the individuals of which it consists.  The „new liberalism‟, as exemplified by Lloyd George and Churchill, although maintaining much of the economics of classical liberalism, had a totally different role for the state. The state was not only there to allow individuals to coexist but also to ensure the limited welfare of its inhabitants. (1911: national insurance contribution for unemployment and health benefits  dependent on people working  if you couldn‟t find a job, this didn‟t apply to you)  Cradle to grave socialist assistance  universal healthcare, unemployment, welfare  ways to help people if they fall into the abyss  Bast o Attempt at progressive liberalism by the Shlegels o Mr. Wilcox: clear views about the poor: one shouldn‟t have a sentimental attitude towards the poor (163) o The Shlegals are „small „l‟ liberal‟ they try to be progressive, generous, try to help where they can, or at least they like to  problem is they feel that people shouldn‟t be poor ,especially people who have culture.  but how one helps the poor is a bit of a mystery to them  they feel for them, but they don‟t know how one helps them.  The debate they go into in ch 15, this is part of the problem  what do you do if you‟re a millionaire and you want to help the poor?  they can‟t come to any sort of a decision  109  “doing good to humanity …”  the narrator speaking for Margaret says doing good for a few is all she can hope for. o Schlegels aren‟t up for complete social reform, can only see helping a few  this is where they go wrong, as their intervention into Mr Bast‟s life leads to his eventual death How much of the past do we keep? Do we keep something like classical liberalism, even though it disenfranchises most of the population. The novel is on the cusp of change  people are beginning to think of people not as well off as themselves, worried about the empire, about the first world war.  A struggle as how do you balance the past and the present? How do you take what‟s good from the past with the ideas of the present o the economic values of the past, with the progressive liberalism to help the poor Modernity, consumerism, industry  all of this is in interest in the text  how does one deal with the modern? How do you accept the encroachment on the country and still value the older things (the house Howards end ie.)  and what do you do with Leonard Bast in the midst of this techonological change  Mr Wilcox always moving, the world is moving faster and faster, can one hang on to the values that Ruth Wilcox has, that sense of people  can you have Mrs. Wilcox and Mr. Wilcox at the same time?  Wilcoxes celebrate movement, and change  Shlegels pose certain forms of resistence: value things that are personal, emotional, reformist, intellectual, cultural  51: Though they want to help the poor, they can‟t understand the poor  they can sympathize, but as they have never been poor they cannot understand  though still separating the classes up and down standing upon. (Leonard bast falls into this abyss  not only economic position, but poverty is the life threatening situation)  money changes our views of what we want and what we need, they way we look at culture and society. o Sympathizing with Mr. Wilcox in the speech: „not the absence of love, the absence of coin‟  money makes a difference o 111: „money is the warp of the world…‟  warp and wuff = basis  what is the basis of society  it‟s money plus… doesn‟t say what it is, whether it‟s human relationships, whether it‟s love.  reflection of the unseen?  if you have money, you have to figure out what to do with it. o This is a rich person‟s story  the narrator says, money pads the edges of things .‟. we‟re not interested in those who do not have money. Ch 6: we‟re not interested in the very poor, we‟re only interested in the middle class Margaret and Helen, they do have this sort of vague idea of helping the poor being a good thing. They don‟t know how to go about it, what they end up doing is talk about helping the poor, where they are actually moving towards disaster.  In contrast to the Wilcoxes they have a more rooted sense to the country and the rural existence, which is also vague and less focused (174)  Margaret is described as someone with an incisive mind, though surrounding her is this weird sense of vagueness  she tries to think outwards but she can‟t do it How much do you think the text values the Shlegels way of looking at the world? How much it actually approves of their values  people should be happy, we should help the poor.  Doesn‟t solve anything  doesn‟t progress.  Narrator indifferent? Approved of the invisible hand long ago.  Defending the humanities  we know biology, we know chemistry The Shlegels believe in the redemptive power of culture  A belief in the power of history, what comes out of the past and our connection to the past, believe in paying lipservice to social reform.  At the end of the novel, Helen decides she‟s going to give 5 000 lbs to the Basts  the only movement to social reform  the Basts refuse  Are the ideas of Henery Wilcox more effective?  Shlegels notion of reform based on a kind of personal philanthropy: Noblesse oblige: personal philanthropy: being a noble, or being wealthy means that one has responsibilities to those who are less fortunate  Social consequences: ineffective because the system doesn‟t have to change; government doesn‟t need to intercede.  things can go on as they always have o Ie Leonard Bast.  Margaret and Helen are trying to help them, but not necessarily as a planned out social program, but to make themselves feel better.  gives them topics for their dinner parties, becomes a text for them on how to proceed with social reform.  one of their adventures. 34:the poor cannot be cultured because to survive takes up so much of their life.  What distracts Leonard is survival, his poverty allows him a sort of genteel shabbyness, but that‟s all  even when he‟s bought the books, something distracts him  it‟s the social conditions under which he labours.  the conditions that nether the Wilcoxes or Shlegels are interested in or can change Leonard Bast  Not as well developed as other characters  see aspect of novel  Leonard flat character  subject/ pet of the Shelegels.  Is a bit like his umbrella: persists, he persists but neither the shelegels or the wilcoxes world view can accommodate Leonard.  The Leonards of the world are identified as a kind of problem at the beginning of ch 6 o 38:Whe he say‟s it‟s not about the poor, we immediately think about the poor, but then they are immediately disvalued as not important to the text o we find out he is 20 o notion of poverty being uncommunicable, in the abyss, they are the unseen, the inconceivable o He and others like him are not valued, are underseen in this culture o Leonard is what would be called lower-middle class at the time  not absolutely poor o Liberalism has doomed him, he now has to fight for his place. The social notion that all men are equal has been a death knell to him o Forcing him to play by the rules of the upper class without the means of the upper class, without the opportunity o The angel of Democracy  something wrong, bat like… o This notion of equality has banned him, almost in the abyss, he feels as though he needs to rise above his station, and assert gentility. o 42: Ruskin: the gothic as something that is kind of savage and imperfect, honours the individual crafts person  modernization to him meant factories, homogenization. Ruskin is looking at this incredible landscape in Venice, Ruskin is eating square things: soup that comes in a square, jello that comes in a square, meat that is round: even food is industrial made, regular  Ruskin‟s approach falls short, isn‟t appropriate for his surroundings. Trying to model Ruskin, but his surroundings are laughable compared to what Ruskin is talking about.  We get narrator, we get inside his head, but we don‟t get much of direct speech from Leonard o Culture is not necessarily redemptive  Leonard is ordinary, but he believes in the redemptive power of culture. o What do we do with how he is represented through the narrator, not through his own speech and in comparison with Ruskin:  Only the rich matter  The narrator can‟t accommodate Leonards life, cannot reach Leoneards life, and Leonard‟s life cannot reach high art  In some ways Leonard is one of the unseen, he is unconceivable, we get to know him through indirect discourse, we know he wants to have a spirit of adventure, and to better himself with culture  the narrative voice seems to parody this aspect of him  how can Leonard understand Ruskin, the gothic cathedrals of Venice when he‟s living in a stuffy flat  Can you appreciate culture if you‟re not born into it.  compare to how the Shlegels can‟t understand poor?  Narrator seems to be putting Leonard down.  often ironic  often says things that are meant to pull us in.  the conversation he is having is trite, the food he‟s eating is awful, the place he is living in is stuffy and he‟s trying to understand Ruskin? o 46: he guy is in this awful situation, and the narrator is making fun of him o Leonard is ofcourse in a hopeless situation, every time he attempts to make himself „better‟ he runs into the fact htat he doesn‟t have enough food to eat, he is pooor, shabby  culture only sits comfortably with those of money. He can‟t make use of it. He‟s stuck, there‟s absolutely nothing he can do about this 275ff: books fall on him, contribute to his death  culture maybe not all that redeeming?  Shortness = insignificance of his life, as he is poor? What do we do then with Leonard?  No one is on Leonards side. Even the Shlegels who try to help him mess it up. Who‟s going to inherit Howards End?  Leonard‟s son  there‟s a weird sense of reconciliation? Some kind of dialectic happening, is the son the third term, the combination of the poor and the intellectual class and somehow Howards end is going to be inherited by this kind of hybrid child  Son born into a wealthy family.  back to money. 5: she doesn‟t mind when Mr. Wilcox „trips her up‟  example of the vaguely liberal mind when faced with Henry  henry has reasons as to why, for example, equality isn‟t necessary (have never been, and doesn‟t make sense to be)  Helen doesn‟t know why equality is necessairy, which leaves her feeling ashamed.  Helen‟s initial reaction to the Wilcox‟s is positive. Wilcox men are represented in a pretty extreme way : capitalist, imperialist, no interest in anyone crushed by social system, have done well, prospered, their politics and views are opposed to those of the Schlegels Why does Forster marry them off in the text? Why is Margaret attracted to Henry? And vice versa? 91: life is unmanageable because it is a romance, what does the narrator mean by „romance‟:  Based on emotions  Idealism, imagination  The genre in which one might imagine alternative worlds; what could be as opposed to what is.  For the Schelgels, in their vague way, that means imagining an alternative world in which art, culture, literature, equality, progressiveness, socialism, culture, history, personal relationships, connections between past and present, between people, between people and the arts, that people shouldn‟t be poor and suffering Henry has no romance, no sense that there could be another world, and why should he? The world is good for him, he has whatever he wants. However the Wilcox‟s are represented, they are winning, they are modernity, eventually they will take over the Schlegels, it will be technology, and factories  these are the things that will win in the end. This encroachment of urbanization is the craze of movement to Margaret. Helen also at the end of the novel says “London‟s creeping” towards Howards End.  Red rust: industrialization, urbanization is encroaching Ruth and Margaret have an inner life the pragmatic Henry does not have.  Ruth is the perfect wife in Henry‟s view, raises children, doesn‟t have ideas of her own, but has her own inner life  Margaret is a sort of proto-feminist, believes in equality and all these other things  Strange why Margaret would put up with being called „the little woman‟ ort that she would appreciate the tone in Henry‟s voice when he says on p 223: …what has it been reading‟  Why doesn‟t she respond to that kind of condescension? 141: treats Margaret as a possession, but struggles with something that money can‟t buy  associates possessing her in marriage with possessing the house  she thinks she can change him? 157 kiss: this exchange is incredibly clinical 159: something defiant about it  because that‟s the only sentence, it takes on importance  has no romance in his soul  doesn‟t agree with her values  no sex  what‟s the point?  Margaret has a missionary zeal  but these are very entrenched ideals, esp with bringing in religion.  Margaret is up against something which is almost impossible.  Yet strangely enough, with all their up and downs, it works for them. A condition of England novel: is the relationship symbolic of the condition of England?  The text has a very melancholic tone  Balanced at the end, there‟s a good deal of joy at the end with the baby  Pastoral scene at end, happiness  But there‟s this melancholic tone of the encroachment of industrialization and modernity  Seems to accept that this encroachment is inevitable  Is Forster suggesting that modernity is going to come, but if in the midst of all this money making and imperialism, we remember the „Margaret” side of the equation, somehow, in the end it‟s all going to work out ok OR  Is Forster trying to suggest that even if M and H can‟t connect in the way that M wishes, they can‟t combine the pros and the passion, is there still the sense that a relationship between two people might be ok if the two people involved can some how accommodate their weaknesses and shortcomings  That in purely liberal humanist terms, this may be the closest to only connect we can achieve to have a relationship that we can realize that each of us is imperfect, that we each have something to bring to the relationship but there isn‟t going to be some overarching connect, that doesn‟t happen in human beings. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM Is the poem the pinnacle of art that the epiphany and the novel has brought him to  It is really pedestrian, really conventional. What‘s the relationship of the author to his or her works? According to critics, reasonably close to James Joyce‘s first 20 years  Do we read it as a biography?  Fictional account  Factual account  Part fact part fiction? Modernism struggling with this: what‘s art after the war? In the face of tragedy? What‘s the relationship between the artists and his work? Perspective and POV becomes very important. To what extent has Stephen‘s life, led to this particular poetic outburst?  What are we supposed to see as the relationship: closure?  What is that poem A fiction about fiction.  Metafiction  You as the reader are supposed to be as self aware as the writer is writing this text, and as the author character is in creating his own aesthetic sensibility  Is it a veil for the life of the author, or does it have a life of it‘s own? Artistic creation is a process  Can see the ways by which Stephen, the author figure, goes about creating his story  Little moments where Stephen discusses artistic theory  Open ending  no absolute closure  a device to sort of give you a clue that the fictional world is supposed to become a part of the readers reality in the process of interpretation  here an essence of didacticism in this text. Author figure self conscious of being an author Self conscious text referring to itself as an artifice, a creation, not just a mirror into real life. --> epigraph to the novel and Stephen‘s name The novel points out as a reflection of life it is untenable: we can‘t see it just as a reflection of James Joyce‘s life  Even the representation of a real persons life as written in a fictional text cannot be a real representation of the real life.  We all fictionalize to some extent our own lives. We structure things in certain ways, we order things in certain ways. We take into account in stories of our own lives the stories told by our family.  Being asked to consider this in the text  how does one capture the time when one was 3? We invent. Opening sentence = clue that it is a fictionalizing of a life. ‗A‘ portrait not ‗the‘ portrait, there are many more portraits that could exist, many more combinations of events that could be told . the first two pages enact the entire text in microcosm  suggested by critics  author fictionalizing his own life, putting in these clues upfront. Begin with the voice of the father, end with the impression of voice of a father  voice of society … Beginning: series of impressions, sensory impressions  that‘s what‘s important to Stephen a long way through the text  the sensory, how you name sensory impressions  Renditions of the 5 senses.  father told him the story, hearing the story, looking through the glass, taste coming in with the lemon platt  no logical order, this is a kid. These are supposed to be the sensory impressions he has a child. Despite this being a fiction, we right away have the introduction of real people. Colours become important during moments of antagonism in the text 2: what does he have to apologize for?  Eileen is of a different religion, she is a protestant  viscous conflict from the start. Images/ Motifs: Roses, Water, Guilt, Birds, idea of a Labyrinth, Religion and all of it‘s attendant complications, Family, Sexuality, Guilt  Religion is the sort of umbrella over all of these things Stephen is fascinated with language  Interested in words, and their sounds and associations  6: beginning to recognize that people use words differently  relationship between the Irish language and the English language  8: sounds of words and what they mean are really important to him  20: the actual tactility of the words, the onomatopoeia. Stephen as an outsider  Maybe the artist is an outsider, maybe not  But he is in his recognition of language, his family is well off, he is an observers stands back and watches things  Position in between in the beginning , can‘t figure out where he stands Polarities that come out in the text: come out early on at the Christmas dinner  25: Morality, politics, religion : Dante: priests are the abettors of politics  28: fundamentalism, where does fundamentalism sit in Stephen‘s move to aesthetic theory? Has to get away from it to produce some aesthetic theory that is going to be read otherwise than by the Catholic church. Stephen has a respect for religious authority: whether he‘s one of the flock, or ome of the sinners In each chapter Stephen comes up with absolutes: has to go through a sort of labyrinth to come through these: Sex, truth, religion. Each one of his absolute answers , maybe even art at the end, fail him 77: he can‘t put himself in another‘s shoes, he can only respond to things that happen in the outside world if they respond to something inside him .  Analyze and put into words his state of experience.  Largely throughout the novel, he uses language to sort through the chaos of sensory experience  function st  Though in his 1 sexual experience, which would assume to be a sensual experience, he is mute, maybe because it is something that hasn‘t happened before o 84: he can‘t speak, he can‘t kiss her  the word ‗kiss‘ defines how Stephen goes through life  from being asked if he kisses his mother at school, can‘t kiss prostitute  can‘t figure the answer out when he‘s a kid, doesn‘t know what it‘s about  trying to figure it out with prostitute?  The novel is structured to some extend by his relationships with women: mother, Dante, ―Mother Church‖ 75: ―a vision of their life…‖ : sees word fetus and is slightly titillated by it, the one thing that allows him to see what people at school must have been like is this one word carved in the desk, not his dads explanations. Only reason it is real to him is that it relates, speaks to, the sexual feelings he‘s been having  can only relate to, or feel something, if it relates to the feelings he has himself. Masturbation fantasies: a kind of metaphor for his self absorption. Part of the thing that makes him so unlikable, physically and psychologically, he‘s majoring in himself.  appropriate for his adolescence?  Stops us from sympathizing with him in his trials and tribulations. Language It‘s not concrete enough for Stephen 6: his name: right from the start, Stephen can‘t in a sense, name himself. He knows what his name is, but he doesn‘t know what the name means 7: idea of language being multiple: belt can be put around your waist, can be a punch. 35: series of impressions that have come up as a result of the word ―smugging‖, which he does not know what it means 11: the kiss: interested in: what does that mean 39: good example of stream of consciousness from the spell on the rectors breath to Napoleon  it‘s beautiful, but the smell of it makes him feel nauseated Dealing with all these sensory perceptions and is trying to name them. Can‘t name things. Doesn‘t know what they are Constantly conscious of the way in which language works. Stephen in the text is coming to know himself through the process of naming. He names things. Language starts out primarily as a means to explain sensory experiences. Moves slowly from that to be a vehicle of abstraction.  Beginning language relates to concrete sensory experiences  Becomes a part of the whole conceptual system he develops at the end of the novel in his writing, his reality Writing in the text is ambivalent, ambiguous  A way to order the world. The world is chaotic in the beginning. Language is a way to order all of this chaotic experience. In beginning Language as a sort of taxonomy.  Naming all of these things in the world he‘s coming into contact with for the first time  Becomes more difficult as he moves, becomes more difficult to read  As we move from words like ‗belt‘ to more abstract things like ‗kiss‘ and ‗politics‘  The naming doesn‘t work: the thing it‘s supposed to fit doesn‘t necessarily do it‘s role: belt can be around your waist or a punch  13: poets: they know what wods are, what words mean. Have command of the language where as he is let down by it, playing catch up. His understanding of the world will increase as he understands it more. They have power because they have that knowledge  poetry and rhetoric are key to him as to how things are going to go o He associates in this thing his lack of conceptual sophistication with a lack of sophisticated language. The words slip away, he can‘t quite get them, they‘re not quite making sense to him. For Joyce language precedes experience. As much as the early bit of the text seems to imply that sensory experience comes first, and then you try to put a name on it  Joyce throughout the text is constantly suggesting that this isn‘t the case. That sensory experience does not come first, language precedes it. Stephens task as he grows as a person and a artist, is partly that of making his experience fit the categories that are supplied by the language inherent. We are born into an already existing discourse. Whatever language we‘re born into, we‘re born into a pre existing system. We can‘t experience anything without having the language for it. (structuralism)  Stephen is born into the language of Ireland, the language of the Church. If he is going to come up with something new to say, he is going to have to come to terms with that or create something new.  why he creates new words.  Why Irish language becomes important to him in the end  52: if he learns the words, he will understand the world: the words precede the world. Language is a social phenomenon: part of the issue  Language is instrumental in inserting Stephen in the social order.  Language has a meaning because a group of speakers of that language have decided that that‘s the word that we use for ‗desk‘. In French ‗pepitre‘ : completely different word. Association that this is a ‗desk‘ not a ‗giraffe‘ it‘s what we‘ve agreed to call it.  Is a social convention, not natural in other languages it‘s called something else  language is a social phenomenon Language is always loaded down with social significance. Part of the fundamental social structure that we‘re born into that determines what we can think and what we can say. For Stephen learning language is a way for him to situate himself in the world  12  like he‘s trying on different identities: that of the sexual sinner, that of the holy man. Each one of these comes up with a different discourse, a different kind of language he has to learn  maybe why he goes through such extremes. Trying to get out of social convention  Paradoxical: when he goes out with prostitutes, doing it because it‘s a sin, doing it in order to be beastly.  Even when he repents after that retreat, he repents in exactly the same language he uses to describe the prostitutes  The same passion he uses to sin, is the same language he uses to repent  93: anticipating the retreat, anticipating that his sinful ways have to be repented for. The language that he uses to describe himself is that of the beast  97: first day after the retreat: example of his self absorption o Language: not stream of consciousness. At those moments when he‘s thinking of his sin, his repentance, the style is standard narrative: given the absolutist language of the Father. No stream of consciousness. A kind of absolute language. o 100: extraordinary language, bringing up sensory experience, someone else‘s take on the sensoryness. o Extreme language appeals to Stephne who is looking for these extremes Comes out of sermon a holy man, but not really  transferred his passion for sinning and the prostitutes, to something else.  Not clear if his new passion is for God, the church or religion, or the language of extremity that he is going to be able to harn
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