Major themes throughout the course. **Think about with discussion
- sex and gender
- history issue of historical consciousness very important to writers in 1 st
half of century, differently important in 2 half.
Ezra Pound impact on The Waste Land
o Guiding principal: ―make new‖ cutting off from history, new
lit., new form...
Many embraced Pound‘s principal, many held on to Victorian et
other historical backgrounds
- What is the function of lit. after the Holocaust, how do you write after.
make it new!
- 1 half, there‘s a tension between wanting to break from tradition and
continue tradition .‘. not one thing that describes modernism.
- Idea of ‗the city‘ urban enviro.
Movement from country to city (London, Dublin)
o London itself becomes a sort of character, a symbol of the
social body, what is socially acceptable and inacceptable is
played out in how London is described, etc…
- Notion of ‗Englishness‘
Powerful, economic force under rule of Victoria
After her death things began to go downhill
What is it to be English or British in the face of hybridity,
urbanization, in the aftermath of war?
-British class system
where one sits in the social hierarchy is dependant on ‗bloodlines‘
less about money, you can be nouveau riche… but if you‘re the son
of a dustman, that‘s who you remain. - The notion of form
closer to the 1920‘s the form of poetry and lit. becomes opaque.
o Trying to think of how to respond to an enormous change
(technology, science), if to make it new, if to respond to
social change, cannot write in old Victorian forms .‘. must find
new forms. Ie. More fragmentation.
How do you write a controlled ancient form when you‘ve
just seen things nobody else has ever seen, in the wake
of the war?... how do you think new ideas if you don‘t
have a new form to put them in?
- More rapid and extreme change than any century before
20 thcen. unique on its various forms in the study of mass
Seems to lurch form disaster to disaster, age of trauma, age of
unbelievable, unprecedented slaughter, new and different methods
of slaughtering people.
Philosopher Maurice Blanchot: ―Modern history is ...how can we
write or think about disaster when by it‘s very nature… shatters
o Tried to respond to respond to some way or another to the
Writiers spend a lot of time thinking ―what is literature?‖ ― What
value can literature have after the Holocaust, Hiroshima?‖
Whether or not lit has a meaningful place in the world after these
disasters. Imperialism 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM
Rule Britannia! (1740)
1580 start of imperialism.
1740 celebration of Britain‘s pushing the boundaries, of Britain‘s
Land of Hope and Glory (1902)
Beginning to run into problems
Empire is beginning to lose some of its power fear about decline
Plea for imperial power
Jerusalem: Blake = (1804); music Sir Hubert Parry (1916)
Blake wrote based on a legend that Joseph had brought the young
Jesus on one of this trading travels to the south west of England
o Jesus has walked upon England…
The beginning of the ramp up of the industrial revolution, the
satanic mills are the factories… pastoral urban, shitty conditions;
being paid very small amounts
o Commenting on industrialization
Making a plea, not just to admonish industrialization, but to use
brains in hope to make things better
Full of unanswered questions
o Jerusalem represents a place of hope, of peace, counter to
the satanic mills of the industrial revolution
Nostalgia sense of we were great
sense of unity
fantasy of belonging will & kate, diana‘s funeral.
sense of melancholia
Freud: ―Mourning and Meloncholia‖
o Mourning: ―reaction to the oss of a loved person, or to the
loss of some abstraction which has taken the place of one,
such as one‘s country, liberyy, an ideal and so on. Im some
people the same influences produce melancholia instead of
mourning and we consequently suspest them of a
pathological disposition. It is also well worth notice that, althought mourning involves grave departures rom the
normal attitude to life, it never occurs to us to regard it as a
o Melancholia: ―the melancholic displays something else
besides which it is lacking in mourning — an extraordinary
diminution of his self-regard, an impoverishment of his ego
on a grand scale. In mourning it is the world which has
become poor and empty; in melancholia it is the ego itself.
The patient represents his ego to us as worthless, incapable
of any achievement and morally despicable; he reproaches
himself, vilifies himself and expets to be cast out and
punished. He abases himself before everyone and
commiserates with his own relatives for being connected with
anyone so unworthy….‖ clinical depression.
the Edwardian Peropd: 1901-1910 QV‘s death – KE‘s death(strictly),
though may extend the date to 1914 (WWI)
British Empire reached its height between 1815 and 1914: ―the sun never
sets on the British Empire‖
Edwardian period full of social unrest strikes, women adgitating for vote
so as to address some of the ills, ie. Child labour, child poverty, Irish
wanting home rule, push back from some of the colonies
Queen Victoria died in 1901 having reigned for 64 years. Her son, Edward
VII, was King from 1901-10
For the upper classes, the Edwardian period was ―la belle époque.‖ Edward
as known for his excess with regard to food, wine and women, and the
decade reflected this.
- A government that is concerned with maintaining the luxuries for the upper
class where as the population wants fair wages, egalitarianism, equal voting
rights etc great split in world views
- Art Nouveau take out of galleries, make everyday objects into works of
art makes more accessible. Expensive to produce, no one could afford it except for Edward and
Organic form, not angular, draws the viewer in, exaggerated
reference to the natural world flowing.
Redefining idea of what ordinary objects are.
Boer War (South Africa) 1899-1902
- wanted independence, Brits won. Took 3 years to defeat what was
essentially unorganized farmers. 14,000 brit soldiers died of disease. 58000
cases of typhoid fever population looked weak, empire looked weak.
- took this that the British were becoming weak decline in power
- Eugenics: eu = well; genes = born: ―the study of all agencies under social
control which can improve or impair the racial qualities of future
generations‖ (Francis Galton, 1883)
Syphilis epidemic punish prostitutes ‗cure‘ at the time was
Worried that if we could evolve, we could also devolve
Measures for ameliorating poverty.
Birthcontrol came out of this, diaphragm. hope, help people out
of poverty by allowing them to choose when they wanted to have
Eugenic marriage 1904: when a young man and a young woman
offering themselves for marriage can produce certified records of
their ancestry backed to 3 generations … free from syphilis,
melancholia, poperism, criminality, epilepsy, prostitution, etc. can
prove all other forms of defectiveness, degeneracy, deafness …
then it can truly be said that a union can be a eugenic marriage.
(believed these were passed on genetically)
The health of the individual body is linked to the health of the
national body linked to the health of the imperial body
‗Mothers allowance‖ paid the right kind of people to have as many
children as possible Combined with:
- Social purity and social hygiene movements: attempted to control sexually
(for ―social‖ read ―sexual‖)
to increase the health of the nation
covered disease, sexuality
wanted to create a race of Britain‘s who were going to be strong,
carry the empire with them
thought young men were becoming ‗soft‘ boy scouts from this.
men in city had too easy a life.
Powell 1908: real men…understand living out in the jungles… know
how to look after health, strong and plucky… ready to face any
danger… always keen to help eachother.. take lives and hands… to
help country… duty to king, fellow countrymen or employers…
-Charles Darwin, Origin of Species (1859)
―survival of the fittest‖: Herbert Spencer. Lead to Social Darwinism,
acting in concert with the notion of eugenics, which argued that:
Darwin had shown that competition in the struggle of survival
resulted in survival of the fittest. The rich are simply better adapted
to survive than the poor and, therefore, should be encouraged to
breed. Others should be discouraged.
Poor having babies ( but they were sickly); rich not having children,
thought to be infertile due to urbanization.
.‘. imperialism was under threat, this threat lead to the attempt to control
- growing fear of war, of ppl wanting to assert their independence
policing the body became the focus as an attempt of social control…
see Eugenic tree (?)
- Eugenics is always racist, notion of the ideal race behind it. Thomas Hardy 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM
-Human agency is nothing compared to the social and cosmic forces, the
laws of society and the forces of nature in which humans live.
The human is weak in comparison with these social forces
The natural sources in the world are largely indifferent to human
No god, no one in charge, not a conspiracy theorists simply social
and national forces, humanity is weak in comparison.
Speakers often wish there was a controlling force god, immanent
will , some patern or design for the universe find that the world
operates by chance, something totally alieatory, not designed.
Doubt and skepticism
-Natural or social forces which are indifferent to human aspirations
-Great Chain of Being
everything has its place
scientific discoveries change the idea of where humans might lie on
chain of being
destructive to those controlling things, those who were religions
this idea that man was created in gods image was foundation for a
lot, and Darwin‘s theory of us evolving from apes created incredible
.‘. religion in decline
primacy of humans in the cosmos
Darwin: all species are descended through a long, gradual process of
modification from a small number of very different species in the remote
past (ie. God did not make all species as they are now)
Freud: much of what we do is as a result of unconscious drives; we are
shaped by forces outside our own consciousness
Marx: workers are alienated from their own labour under capitalism.
Ideology hides the process of exploitation that keeps workers disempowered Einstein: something as seemingly stable and reliable as the chair you are
sitting on is onl as stable and reliable as its velocity will allow it to be.
- created an anxiety about human being‘s place in the world. what is
there to rely on?
- The span of human life, and the extent of human power is minute against
the natural world and forces, against these human beings are nothing, like
flies, small, powerless
- there is not natural significance to human life as there is no god who‘s
intentions have been made to manifest in human creation
- human beings have reason, read, write, think somehow that means God
gave us special status in the universe… these theories took that notion of
Bad things just happen, good things just happen … they just happen, no
- what do you do when you realize that our lives are governed by chance/
-vengeful god. myth, one that the speaker laments. at least know
where it‘s coming from
- instead world is run by crass casualty, dicing time. even time is a
gambler, based on luck.
- petrarchan sonnet speaking of no structure, in an extremely strict form.
Attempt to create structure where no structure exists only art
can do this, can perhaps create a kind of structure, there is no god
to create one.
If…then…but…not so… structured in a logical argument (modus
- uses archaic, unusual, words, neologisms chaos within form.
- freedom… ‗Neutral Tones‘
- ash tree symbolism symbol of happiness in winter, death of this
- a remembrance of a scene in which the speaker cannot get out of his head
every painful detail of this moment
- a scene recollected
- the scene and the emotion are one in the same whenever he thinks of
the pain of love, he conjures up this scene.
- scenery to be the emotion of pain.
- trying to make it something manefestible, but cannot
The Darkling Thrush
Elegy: lament for the dead, a person; lament for the transience of
human life; lament for the times past (As in this poem) values
eroded, generations killed in war lament for loss
Classical Elegies shaped by recognizable pattern: recognition of the
loss and the effect that it has on the speaker of the poem… the grief
is worked through in the course of the poem
The poem‘s mood begins to rise again
Bit like stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining, depression,
Does the speaker in this poem find any consolation by the end of
the poem, or is this a stage that completely eludes him
See note on freud in Imperialism melancholia turn grief
inwards upon themselves, so they feel worthless, inferior, self
In between state inbetween house and garden, the wood that is
beyond the gate, between wild and civilization
On the one hand we have the promise of a new year, on the other,
what we have infornt of us is deadness it‘s winter (jan) the land
is dead .‘. the turn of the year is more in tune with the death of
what was before Imagery of haunting ppl, the 19 thcentury haunting this particular
Dead but moving spectral
Fervorless lacking energy, leaning on gate, looking at the world
around him rather than exploring it physically
Regular rhythm in the poem iambic tetrameter jaunty
Dark tone jaunty rhythm.
Sense of action with the shorter action at line 17 onward.
Thrush frail, small, old singing even song evening church
service in the Anglican communion
Why use a religious term to describe what the thrush is doing?
ironic, the thrush has hope because he has religious belief, but
those who do not have religious belief know what actually is going
The bird being a voice for something possible transcendent
See ode to a nightinggale (Keats) in poetics anthology
Important that he is drawing on a poem from the 19 century
Lyre associated with gods from classical mytholofgy lyric
lyric poetry; thought to represent or have a connection in Greek
mythology with nature
Broken strings a broken connection; if the lyre or the lyric poem
of Keats somehow gave the possibility of the sense of the
transcendent, something eternal, that is broken. mourning not
only the death of a century but the death of a tradition.
Last stanza indicate lack of connection.
o Sees no empirical evidence for such joy.
o Associating self with this haunting, with being barely alive.
o No sense of transcendence here, instead is perfectly logical
o The conditional ‗could‘ as opposed to the imperative ‗can‘,
‗do‘. the bird may have some information, but the speaker
is unaware of some blessed hope, has not been
communicated to him/ humanity could see the joy but
Convergence of the Twain Sense of god or predestination?
Could be considered an elegy. loss of the Titanic.
If there is an immanent will,does it act at random, is that being like
the vengeful god of hap, or more like crass casualty of hap?
―God himself couldn‘t sink this ship‖ arrogance, .‘. no life boats
Immanent will/ being built iceberg?
One of the most predicted events (Dreams, predictions…)
Arrogance in naming Titanic Titans.
Hardy wrote this poem for a souvenir program for a charity event
for disaster relief. Possibly for the victims families of the titanic and
Knows this cultural sense of predestination when writing this piece.
Not a sentimental poem, not about the dead
All of the weath is still there with it sunk, but is meaningless... none
of their opulence means anything anymore.
The wealthy on this voyage being parodied? (3) all their wealth
means nothing now.
Maybe the wealthy were equally grotesque as the sea worm that
the glittery mirror now reflects.
Set up as a sexual union. Ship as a she, the Immanent Will
preparing a sinister mate ―intimate welding of their later history‖
o Ship on maiden voyage. The Secret Agent — Conrad (1907) 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM
- Was sailor. Orphan by age 11. Parents were anarchists, agitating for Polish
liberation from Russia. Father was leader of group ―the Reds‖ who advocated
for Polish independence via violent means. Both parents arrested and exiled
for social subversions.
- This novel touches upon social subversion and anarchy.
―The only legitimate basis of creative work is in the courageous recognition
of all the irreconcilable antagonisms that make our life so enigmatic, so
burdensome, so fascinating, so dangerous — so full of hope‖ (NYT, 1901)
Antisyzygy: ability to hold two contrary ideas at once
Anarchy: Gk an or a without; archos = ruler. Contrary to authority. Not
necessarily absence of order, but absence of rule.
Not a novel that is going to reconcile any of these antagonisms.
Idea of loss of moral absolutes.
At the time the social world in England was in a state of upheval,
things were anarchic, lots of social unrest.
Worry that the government would lose control and that somehome
anarchists would take over. Partially caused by econimic issues, gap
Questioning of human beings posistion in the universe visavi god,
evolution, mathematics create a fear of anarchy if we don‘t
know the absolutes…
Hole created by bomb blast in Greenwich in attempt to blow up the
Greenwich observatory. see back of book for newspaper
Idea of blowing up time itself.
Plays with time at the beginning as time is out of joint at the
meridian at Greenwich. big hole in the middle of the novel as in
the middle of Greenwich.
A lot of irony, and play with language, and this notion of what a
Going to explore irreconcilable differences. o The police who are supposed to be the guardians of social
order and control are corrupt and self serving.
In this novel the anarchists are the ones who want to correct social
harmony, and the police want to harm it.
Crimes are committed, not punished by police, by society, in a
o What is a crime anyway? And by whose standards to we
judge? What constitutes a crime?
P48. Anarchists trying to change the liberalness/ leanientness of the
society into something more controlled
Socialist, in line iwht the proletariat
Want to scare middle class by blowing up Greenwich observatory
Anarchy attacks all forms of authority law, state, education…
Not absence of order, absence of rule ***
Mr. Vladimir thinks the lackness/ individualism in the British isles is
Only option left when everything else has been tried loss of hope
to make change in the econimic or political system. overturning
the whole system
Only true anarchist in the novel seems the be the professor.
Winnie is the only one who actually murders.
o Wanders around with a detinator in his pocket. Going to blow
things up if anyone gets too close to him.
Reference to mastrubation anarchist unto himself, operating on
his own principles always has hand in pocket. - he‘s self-
involved program o anarchy that is absoutley clear in the text
o Also one who is truthsayer in novel realizes the police and
the anarchists play the same sort of games, and that they are
games. Is the one in the novel who‘s called ‗moral‘ though
he‘s the one who wants to blow things up.
o Only one whose actions match his personal code. Who has a
program and intends to stick to it, everyone else gets
distracted off their path.
What is moral? What are ethics in this case? London in this novel as much a character in this novel as any of the
named characters a city of secrets, confrontations, augmentation.
Read descriptions closely will give clue as to what is going on in
the text, the narrators vision of ideas of society.
P.44… narrative in this passage moves from carriage to sun to mr
verlock‘s coat small to large to very small again
What is trying to be suggested by these carriages with a woman
wearing skin of ―beasts‖ with a woman‘s face emerging.
Emphasizes what she‘s wearing over woman in carriage herself.
Barbarism. The notion of human ascendancy over animals british
imperialism taking over countries
Blood shot London sun, an unpleasant, unhealthy idea, but then
describes a pleasant scene under it.
P47. Connotation of organic anarchy city itself participating with
a broad wink houses aren‘t numbered right, streets not named
right. strayed houses.
o Giving a wink and a nudge, verbal irony in this text. The
narrator is watching Mr Verlock walk through London,
commenting on the house numbers not corresponding to the
ones around it suggest something lose in London, that the
houses wake up and shuffle away, btu they of course, don‘t
o Something is alive here, things aren‘t quite right
o Notion of a consuming city in all senses of the world, it
consumes all who walk in it. The dark is not just dark, it is
greasy, slimy, soot, and drops of water.
o There‘s something palapable even about the air they‘re
o City‘s gigantic mouth consuming everything that goes into it
(see Kurtz in Hart of Darknes)
Trauma [wound in greek] in the text: Freud writing after WWI
was seeing a lot of men who came back after the war with ‗war
neurosis‘. Idea of wound never heals keep dreaming about
tragedy they saw; why if this is so miserable, why are they bringing
it up, why will the wound not heal?
Repetition in the novel. o Whatever happened to these soldiers in the war was out of
their control. But there was an attemot in reliving that
moment again and again to gain some kind of control
Looking at a novel set in a traumatic world where even the houses
don‘t stay stable, everything is in flux.
P34: talking about creative process –> cruel devouer of mans night
o London is lie a graveyard, where souls are living.
o Telling us how he came up with story.
o Evockative language lie w/in story itself
P36: this is winnie‘s story
o Think about how and if it is winnies story ****
If so what does that do the background of anarchy, and
politics and the possible explosions.
whether or not language can communicate
Ankylosis abnormal fusion of bones
Villegiature - a trip to the country for a holiday (FSF)
Charabia unintelligible language.
- novel also about communication.
- Why would an author use words like those above? Through the
language being used, there is an example between the reader and the
text which also happens between the characters within the text.
- Have to work to understand the language.
- Narrator doesn‘t seem to speak the same language as the characters.
- Distance between the narrative voice and the character. Distance
between the narrative voice and the reader creates huge amount of
verbal irony - Sometimes tremendous amount of sarcasm
- Language sometimes inappropriate for the action.
Cabbie: Virgils Silenus (companion to Dionysis)
- uses language of heroic quest, of heroism. fixed epithets, Homeric
- Huge amount of very black humour.
- See Stevie being shoveled up by constibles ―he‘s all there‖ Stevie
wasn‘t all there whne he was alive irony
- Disjointed narrative voice.
- Any act of charity or kindness is always turned back on them.
- Charity house - so Stevie is better off in life, but ends up better off
in death as being taken care of Verloc leads to his death; Charity
house makes special accomodatinos for her because she is not
childless and widowed, but ends up being so. foreshadowing
- Winnie is the one who plants the idea in Verloc‘s head that Stevie is
devoted to Stevie so devoted to him that he would go through fire
for Verloc, and… ends up doing so.
- Irony, joking, literalizing of expressions. play with language.
Narrative as web:
Etymology of the word ―text‖ is tissue; something woven
Readers should ‗perceive the fabric in its texture, in the interlacing of
codes, formulae, and signifieers, in the midst of which the subject places
him/herself and is undone like a spider that comes to dissolve in its own
web.‖ (Roland Barthes, ―Text, Discourse, Ideology‖)
Verbal Irony: in which a person says or writes one thing and means
another, or uses words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of the
literal meaning. Structure: mirrors fragmentation of society; no linerairty; play with time.
- city is like a web, difficult to find way around
- web of novel, interconnections, ppl meet, talk, but a failure of language,
failure to communicate
anarchists are completely self absorbed, don‘t listen to one another,
speak in monologues, speak over one another, no attempt to
debate, not really speaking to one another
listening to their stories and their incredibly hytperbolic language is
what makes Stevie so upset, and leads him to believe he‘s
enganged in such a humanitarian mission when he goes to set the
There‘s no good or evil. Nobody comes out of the text particularily
good or bad. World is composed with Secrets and Secret Agents. A
secret is something you can‘t communicate
Language seems inappropriate. If you have a completely
fragmented community, how do you get fragments of that
community together when they cannot communicate with one
When ppl speak with one another they are talking at crosspurposes
all the time
P93/6:distanced language when describing them. Not being asked
to identify with them. Asked to give a kind of dispassionalte, distant
sort of view of the professor and of the police.
A lot of dispair in the text. Lack of communication has its
consequences leads to despair, suicide
Secrets society being fragmented. Always a threat that
somebody has a secret a paranoid universe.
Outdoors becomes a threat. Even the air is dangerous, peoples
faces are described as listless, emotionless, passive. Kafkaesque
P43: Stevie is the one who says anything important in this listless,
sticky, slimey world: ―bad world for poor people‖ centerpiece for the
text, for the text morality. It s Setvie who is the ―idiot‖ who says
the true thing, who sums up the world that he is living in. See Stevie‘s insanity with how Nitche became insane whipping of
P65:comment on secrets? Father is a ‗good man‘ but secretly beats
Stevie at home.
o Puts blame on Stevie, when not his fault
Novel with hole in plot
Novel without a hero.
No absolutism making our reading of the text fragmented as well.
Not jut a response to post 19c and WWI but a response to language and
Connection with Hardy and his bleak view of the world.
Cannibalism. p73, p79
Given that he uses this phrase, word, numerous times, is modern industrial
society consuming its populous? Is there something else going on here, what
does it mean to be cannibalistic? Why is it a phrase that comes up again,
and again, and again.
In this novel, ppl are reduced to their component parts. to fragments.
Everyone in this city is literally or figuratively
Cesare Lombroso (70; 280): biological determinism — behaviour can be
determined by physical characteristics
Very interested in the study of phrenology the study of the
bumps on the head
Certain people were born criminals. by looking at ppl you could
predict what the person was ie. All prostitutes/ vagrants had certain
physiological features which would indicate what they were.
While Darwin wrote about evolution, Lombroso and others theorized that
maybe some human beings were in a state of devolution, or degeneracy.
In the novel Lombroso was put down by the anarchists but then
this raises the idea of degeneracy and degeneration Those seemed civilized had evolved. All others had devolved or degenerated.
One could identify a degenerate by a physical examination. Among the traits
Unusually short or tall stature
A small head but a large face
A small and sloping
a receding hairline
wrinkes on the forehead or face
large sinus cavities or bumps on the face
large, protruding ears
bumps on the head, particularly in the Destructiveness centre
above the left ear
a strong jaw line, fleshy lips, sloping shoulders ,unibrow, long arms,
pointy/ snubbed fingers/ toes… etc
- was a eugenicist eugenics is very racist ( see features that indicate
In SA the physical body is blown up, associated with a cannibal feast, serves
as a symbol of the political and social worlds, is used as a measure of the
―fitness‖ of an individual
49: Verloc as ―corpulent and fat‖
the anarchists all have very peculiar bodies on which the narrator
dweels: fat, emaciated, bald, missing teeth, pouchy eyes, bulging
cheeks grotesque -> 66-7
Mikhaik Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World
Carnivalesque and the Grotesque Body
Medieval carnival: takes place before Lent
o Kind of letting off of steam
o Transgression at the time of carnival everyone is assumed
to be on a level playing field
o Gets rid of social notions of hierarchy o A temporary liberation of social order
o A licensed liberation
Celebrates a temporary (and licensed) liberation
Suspension of hierarchy (clowns become kings; king become
When people dress up the bodily apparent is the grotesque.
Images of the grotesque body concentrate on the exaggeration of
certain parts of the body those that are in connection with the
outside world mouth, nose, ears bowels, genitals areas of
contact with the world
Grotesque body transcends its own limits
In opposition the smooth, beautiful, clothed, complete, proportionate,
spiritually suggestive classical body
Grotesque associated with animals, becoming, the ‗low‘
Connection with everything that is earthly as opposed to spiritual.
Grotesque body: transgresses its own limits, open, unfinished ,exaggerated,
Carnival is temporary; the prevailing order will reassert itself after a finite
In SA, however, the grotesque has become permanent. There is no return to
the norm from which carnival deviates; the grotesque, disordered, uhly and
upsde down world is the norm
People who are normal are degenerates, or idiots (Stevie)
In carnival you can rely on the fact that however topsy-turvy things
are, it‘s only temporary, things will return back to normal
Where as in Conrad the world is stuck in the grotesque.
o People are described as fragments. people are not whole
here they are bits and pieces . played with a bit in the
notion of Stevie blowing himself up.
Bodies are used as symbols the political body…
Separates winnie‘s family from the rest, a domestic case Stevie is already
Stevie is the compass of kindness in the text no good deed goes
This is a kind of forshadowing for the rest of the novel journey
Winnie will take towards her own death, the wanderings of Mr
verloc towards his own death.
Verloc pumps him with tales of injustice that Stevie is eager to
Stevie: Character with a strict moral code, but whenever his
feelings/ sensibilities are aroused he has no boundaries, he‘s too
sensitive, he can‘t keep himself away from things that make him
upset unlike sister Winnie -> things don‘t bear much looking into
o As soon as he feels strongly about something he can‘t speak
language fails, communication fails says the most clever
things in the novel but he can barely stammer them out
the moral compass in the story can hardly get out the
sensitive feelings he has.
Winnie‘s mother nameless. Why?
o Widow. Subsumed into her dead husband‘s identity
o Supplements Winies identity
Stevie kind of gets ignored as his judgemnets of good and evil do
not have place in this grotesque world
o 157: narrator using complicated, fine language, Stevie can
only manage ―poor brute‘ ‗poor people‘ ‗shame‘
o stevie‘s epiphany moment
get a comment on the nature of the family even within the domestic
o keep being told mr verloc loves his wife ―like a husband
should‖ o 149: essentially slandering her daughter by compressed
lips, by silence, conveys she‘s been mistreated, abused in the
The domesticity in this scene is not comforting the world inside is not less
154: Stevie to cabman: cabman is the only one who doesn‘t look upon
Stevie as an object for derision
even then the cabby is associated with silenus, which is associated
with dysenus (sp) who is drunk all the time… and the cabbie ends
up in the pum
the one person who pays attention to Stevie is a drunk.
No matter what he does, he‘s not being paid attention to by
anyone. Poetry of WWI 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM
- The war that created literary modernism
- The Great War
- technology on a more primitive scale than seen in WWII
rifles, bayonets, cart horses, tanks (they would get stuck in mud),
cannons, lots of gasses (mustard, chlorine blistered skin, tore up
-War of men, horses, trenches, hand to hand combat
- still using carrier pigeons
- up close and personal
- June 28, 1914: assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his
pregnant wife Sophie in Sarajevo, Bosnia by 19 year old Gavrilo Princip
catalyst that starte the war.
Was heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire, next in succession to be
emperor and king of Hungary
Went to Sarajevo to expect truce, and was shot by a student
Gavrilo Principe part of a group of revolutionaries
- Ferdinand was heir to the Hapsburg empire ^^
** in the wake of the assassination, A-H wanted to subdue Serbia and was
backed by German. A-H broke off the relations with Serbia which, they
thought, had been behind the assassination (no proof was ever found).
Three days later, A-H declared war after that was like dominos
* Russia (who saw self as a protector of the slavic states) threatened A-H:
Germany declared war on Russia (1 August, 1914)
* France supported Russia; Germany declared war of France
* Germany entered Belgium on the way to invade France ; Britain declared
war on Germany - no one actually wanted a war. Scholars suggest that this was bluffing, that
somehow it was about pride and measurement and the problem was that
once the bluff had been called pride dictated that they had to go on with the
-from beginning the war was a litany of mistakes, and blunders, cost millions
of people their lives as a result
- in England everybody said it would be over by Christmas. Idea was good
and justice would prevail. This was a just war, the forces of good would win
out over the forces of evil.
- One of the greatest losses in Britain was of the romanticism of justice,
heroism, honour, and chivalry things ppl thought were just of common
sense the war changed that.
- patriotism at the beginning of the war was running rampant, no
conscription until 1916
- Much of the early poetry defends that Britain is fighting on the side of God,
that justice will prevail couldn‘t imagine what would happen idea that
all you need to win a war is a just argument if they would only listen it
would all be ok.
Rupert Brook ―the Soldier‖
Good idea of sense of justice, of patriotism, of there being
something called a ‗just conflict‘
‗I am England, because I am fighting for England‖ no distinction
between himself and the country he is fighting for
Imperialist even his body when he dies will take over the soil of
the country he dies in for England.
England is the mother country, it‘s Britannia, fighting for England is
the thing you need to do as a good citizen of England.
Sonnet talking about sacrifice that will allow England to continue, so
he sees himself that even when he‘s dead his death will help
England go on
A poem of martyrdom, poem could be used as English propaganda Sense of this cause being blessed by God
The Most popular pre-War British poetry was called Georgian after King
George V, 1910 – 1936
―It laked contact with science, and industry, its emotions were gentlemanly
and restrained; it enthused about the trivial details of rural life; its
vocabulary was artificially romantic and its metre was tediously orthodox. It
lacked the vigor and the social purpose that was being shown in
contemporary prose‖ of poetry
fiction is doing something quite different from the poetry at the
time. Fiction addresses , responds.
Poetry read by the leisure class, people who read it enjoyed that it
- sentiment in Brooks‘ poetry used for propaganda does well to bring
people into the war inorder to raise patriotic fervour, to raise money that the
White Feather campaigne women walked around with white feathers
symbolizing cowardice women passed a man not in uniform gave him the
feather to symbolize his cowardice
No conscription propaganda worked so well
- Women couldn‘t vote cos weak were awarded vote in 1918 because of
their work during the war, assuming the men‘s positions, proving their
July 1 1916: Battle of the Somme
Believed to be the worst day in British history
Believed that if they could capture this piece of land, they would
win the war
Brits encouraged raids before the battle began. Result of that was that the Germans strengthened their trenches
and forces (40ft deep trenches)
For 5 days prior to the Somme offencive beginning the allies
bombed the hills Germans occupied, the ground was torn up,
It‘s pouring rain, its up hill, it‘s all muddy -> get order to go
People in trenches were working class who couldn‘t afford to buy
their kids commissions to get themselves up
At 7 am they marched carrying 66lb packs plus artillery uphill, in
the rain, through the mud
Order to go over the top caused hysteria as they knew they would
drown in the mud
Sergants ordered to shoot any able bodied man who could move
Germans waited until they got close enough then mowed them
down, or waited for them to drown in the mud
In one day 60 000 men died. 20 000 wounded
Lasted until November, by that point 1 000 000 men had been
When news of the Somme broke it it was hard to maintain the
same attitudes of it being a just war.
Disillusionment amongst soldiers was particulary bad esp when they
were sent home on leaves
When they got home they discovered that ppl didn‘t know very
much about what they were going through (censored press and
Propaganda machine was such that there was no news that the
country got en masse
The churche‘s position was in support of the war
Many soldiers said they had no quarrel with the ‗enemy‘
o Christmas story sang carols, played soccer, exchanged
- most of the poetry in the war reflects the sort of despair for dying for no
reason, hopelessness. - People felt betrayed by their own country which contributed to the
Poetry is important as a document, not as poetry
W.B. Yeats: Owen‘s poetry is ― all blood, dirt and sucked sugar stick‖ ;
Rosenberg‘s poetry is ―windy rhetoric‖; ―passive suffering is not a theme for
Is it just ―we know war is hell‖ but ―is the poetry of war doing
something else besides just suggesting that war is hell‖
Sentimentalism: individual experience (as opposed to divine guidance) is the
source of all knowledge and values. Feelings are necessary un making moral
Something one tends to look down on.
How often sentimentalism is used to create social change.
Modernists: aim to represent the world is a consciously literary language;
texts whose aim was to change the world and which were written in a
democratic language which would have popular appeal did not qualify as
works of art
Responding to the war with much more distance, much more
cynicism, prejudice of what makes high literature and low literature.
Aiming for an elite reader/ audience who will understand the
intellectual basis of lit.
War poets: writing in a way of bringing it to consciousness to the public at
Essentially attempting an intervention probably why using
sentiment to reach the broadest possible audience.
Where the heightened emotion comes from responding to what they saw
around them The creation and idealization of the past p 1991: David Jones
War poets coming out of a Georgian tradition.
Edward Thomas: As the Team’s Head Brass
Lots of soldiers who went out to fight, died within the first two days.
Set in England: in an England conscious of the war, that men are dying
The landscape is a peaceful one: asked to compare the landscape at home,
to the landscape of the battlefield
As peaceful as the landscape is, there is a sense of a longing for the
past before this has all happened, is in mourning
Lovers doing something ‗loverlike‘ in the woods.
Ploughing land, form of rebirth
Lovers going to have sex also form of rebirth
= sense of something positive and hopeful
there‘s a continuity, there‘s something that‘s still going on that has
been going on forever (the tilling of the land etc)
sounds like ordaniry prose, an ordinary conversation, doesn‘t sound
like a poem though largely in iambic pentameter sounds more
just reported, nothing sentimental here, nothing emotional.
Why is this a war poem?
Juxtaposition of nostalgia and fear
1916 year it was written is the first year of conscription
Siegfried Sassoon ‘They’
Satirizes generals, but is also not very keen on those who stay at home who
are willfully blind, to the politicians who voted for the war
Is pretty brutal. Signed up as soon as the war was declaired, was wealthy enough to buy a
commission. In 1917 was wounded, when recovering, wrote a letter that was
a protest against the war and commented on the political errors and
insincerities that the men were fighting for this letter made it to the house
of commons where it got him accused for treason. His friend got him to see
a medical board, which declared him as psychologically unstable
Was sent to a psychiatric institution to recover
Who is doing this to the soldiers? The germans may be firing the guns, but
who made them be there they is specific yet general enough
People are named personal
May be one of sassoons comments because the church supported
The divine presences as pushing forward… can‘t rationalize the
loss… god‘s strange … a cliché doesn‘t really mean anything
Language, words of comfort, become insignificant in the face of
what soldiers have been through
Glory of Women
More so an attack on the propaganda then an attack of women on the
White feather campaign, etc.
‗you make us shells‘ believing in the propaganda makes us shells cos you
don‘t know what we‘re going through, and also you‘re contributing to the
problem by making the shells that are dropped during the war
women united, whether you‘re british or german, your son, husband, brother
isn‘t coming home Isaac Rosenberg: Louse Hunting
An inept, absent minded soldier served for 22mo straight in the trenches
as a result. Wasn‘t an aristocrat, enlisted because of poverty, didn‘t sign up
because he felt a draft ofpatriotism, he was poor…. Was a way to make
money… not the same kind of vision of Sassoons, of there being an
ideological, propaganda cause of having to fight, he was a poet before going
. not so much a warrior poet, was a poet who was in the war.
Calling up a demonic, witches Sabbath.
Free verse, no regular metrical pattern, rhythmical pattern imitating the
chaos and lack of reason in the scene in hunting lice that woke them up
Some are burning shirts, running candle up and down the seams
At war with the lice as well. Aw war with their own bodies
Half funny, half tragic
So ordinary, lice is so little, yet in the face of this huge propaganda
machine and the killing ,trenches and the mud, there‘s lice, and
they can‘t stop itching them ,can‘t get rid of them .
The supreme flesh is not immune to the supreme l
Elegy: poems about grief, or loss
Loss of ideals
Loss of supremacy
So even in something like Louse Hunting : Tragicomic: here are the
sons of the british empire being woken and made crazy by these
o Loss: loss of human supremacy, the soldiers themselves are
fighting with their own bodies, their bodies are betraying
Dance of death, metaphor for the physical battle in war
Foreshadow of what could happen to them in war,
acting it out in the trenches No foreseeable end to the mourning, to the war.
Some are conscious lamentations, mourning
Trying to write about the war emotionally, but respond to the war
Grieving needs time. something that they don‘t have in these
He was most criticized for sentimentalism
Was injured in war, suffered from shell shock. Was suggested to work on
poetry by doctors to get over shellshock.
May help him work his way through it, but has to revisit and relive
“Anthem for Doomed Youth”
Petrarchan Sonnet: octave and sestet: has rhyme scheme of an English
Attempt to put some order on the disorder of wars.
Mixing of forms: sense of distance and familiarity
A poem about funerals, and battlefield graveyards
Anthem: National Anthem, Sung in church, not typically mournful, a song of
Something ironic of the use of anthem in the title
o The irony points to the tragedy.
About doomed youth, not about national pride, calls into question that whole
notion of praise.
Doom: when you‘re dead you‘r done, when you‘re doomed, you‘re moving
towards death no matter what; fatalistic. Passing-bell: if you heard the bell, you were supposed to pray for the soul of
the person that was about to be dead.
What is an appropriate funeral for someone who is dying as cattle on the
battle fields, what consolation can come to those who have died on the
They died far from the social convention of funeral rights as they
would have happened in England, are not available to them
Even traditional responses to death are not appropriate when they
died in war
Cattle: herded into the war and shot down, de humanized; no
Commentary being made on religion
Associating the machinery of war, the weapons, with the words we
would use to describe the funeral
The church supported the war
You can pray but no one will hear you, the church won‘t help you
The weapons of war are mocking the religious, funeral rights
Commentary on the place of religious rituals in this war
The weapons of war have taken over religion, because the only
thing that matters is death and destruction.
Celebration of life, gods grace, none of that is available here
Octave: acts out the battle
L3. Onomatopoeia : rapid rattle, you actually hear it.
Trying not to just report, but to create the condition, that even if
you‘re far from war, you can hear what is going on.
The number of caesuras: is jarring like war, war is not smooth;
causes you to visually think
Technology that is mad: the shells are demented
Separating man from machine, the machine is mad, not the men Removal of guilt, the soldiers don‘t want to do the killing, by
personifying the weapons it makes it thieir fault; less the human
agency, they are the viction
L8: move back to home
Representation of what will happen at morals
The language slows down, vowels are longer
Back to image of the funeral
Image of the choir boys at the funeral holding the candles
It‘s not the technology of the battlefield he focuses on
Focuses on human mourning, the physical evidences in the people
that become the memorial
It‘s not the candles but the tears, not the flowers but the
tenderness of patient minds, not the pall, but the palour that
memorialize: it‘s the human emotion
A very physical response, these are the memorializing for the
Drawing of the blinds: pull down the blinds to show there are those
But also, blind as turning a blind eye, something you hide behind,
blinds shut out the world, something you hide behind
Sense that even though one may be memorialized ni the memories
of the living, people forget, people draw down the blinds, they shut
There‘s a kind of tension here, whether or not there is a consolation
that the dead will be remembered forever, or whether they will be
“Dulce Et Decorum Est‖
response to a kind of ‗jingleism‘ of jesse pope, as a type of propaganda
it‘s not noble, it‘s just painful
more painful because it is something you go through alone when you are in that agony, it is you suffering and nobody can do
anything about it
can hear and see the battlefield
the visual imagery is really acute, and painful.
First 8 lines: made more acute, because you have to compare your
functioning senses with the soldiers unfunctioning senses: blind, lain,
Wants reader to hear and to see.
Give us a sense of community: they are as a group,. They are all
tired ,they are united by the fatigue, the physical damage, their
senses, the lamness, the blindless, deaf to the shells, can hardly
stand, are blood-shod, bent double
Not because they have been injured by the other side: this is the
price of the fighting, their own side has done this to them, they
haven‘t been injured this is what the fighting, just going into the
battle has done to them
The body is the text on which the war is written; very concerned
with the physical this is where you see the war written
Next 6 lines:
Gives way to a frenzie
There‘s a gas attack
An ecstasy of fumbling, normally something happy, excessive
o A high of fear, self preservation heightened emotion, but
isn‘t bliss, is a sense of doomedness.
o Terrified that they‘re going to die
o Don‘t have time to help their fellow, are doing this alone.
Nothing anyone can do but watch
o Speaker watched through the gas mask and watches through
this green haze as his compatriot is dying, and there is
nothing he can do about it
Next 2 lines: ―In all my dreams…‖ The trauma that the speaker feels is repeated memorializing of
panic, has to save himself
Innate selfishness, has to save himself, can‘t help his friend at all,
relives this situation over and over again
Is traumatized by the experience and also by his inability to help
Not dead yet, thrown compatriot in a cart back to their base, the
gargling, and the misery of the process of dying
Scene is up close and personal.
The speaker hears and sees and feels the effects of the gas on his
fellow soldier, subsequently he dreams of this over and over and
The line he addresses to ‗my friend‘ (the jingalistic writer, or
anyone left behind to anyone left behind who supports the war)
o Anyone who does not believe it isn‘t hideous, that it is sweet
to die for ones country: there is nothing sweet in this
Howards End (1910) — E.M. Forster 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM
- “Condition of England” novel
Novels which seek to engage with contemporary social and political issues: focus on
the representation of class, gender and labour relations; concern with social unrest
and growing antagonism between rich and poor.
the social consequences of the industrial revolution
in this novel, the industrial revolution doesn‟t come into it per se, but the effect, the
effect of money which is made, „new money‟ vs „old money‟, those who are upstarts
who make their money in trade, those whose money is ancient and comes down to
them from a long line of people
- City novel; counter to the title which is a name of a house in the country
The issue of the city and what the city means
The city vs the country appears a lot in the text
The result of industrialization
What is the city now, what is the country now
What do we do with poverty
How do we manage poverty in the city
What changes is indurtrialization making in the way which the city is talked about
- Binary oppositions: pair of terms or concepts that are theoretical opposites
One of the characterisitcs of Western thought; one of the two terms assumes a role of
dominance over the other. A way in which our culture creates hierarchies
(white/black; rational/ emotional; man/ woman)
Why does the one that comes after seem to be a little lesser than scope
Try to explode the binarys, look at them, figure them out, and see whether or not the
text is actually questioning the absolutism of that binary
- Dialectic: a theory of the nature of logic
Determination of “truth” is arrived at by the association of a teory (thesis); its
opposition (antithesis): the synthesis of the two to form a third theory
The difference beteen the two is the sense of dialectical movement: out of an original
paor: the dialectic produces a third term
Is there any points in the novel where there seem to be absolute opposites come into a synthesis,
or are exploded - Class is really important
Schleigals are upper middle class, they don‟t work
The Wilcoxes work
Bast is a clerk, and he has to work for a living, he wants to better himself
Culture Industry money
Progressive (liberal) Conservative
History traditio Present/ future/ modernity
“Old money” New money
Where does Leonard Bast sit in all of this?
By mistake he ends up associated with the Schegels with some bad consequences
- Does the narrative voice take sides?
- Do the tensions/ oppositions break down
- History: is the relationship between past, present and future continuous? A flow of cause and
- OR is it discontinous and disruptive? Are there ruptures in the flow of history out of which
something new, not entirely determined by the past can spring?
- Is it a bit of both?
- Is it progressive? Do things get better? Or are they just different?
- Is history somehow degenerative? Do things go backwards? A decline from the past
- Is history progessive? Does each moment build on and improve the one before?
- Or cyclical? : “ Hegel remaarks somewhere that all great world-historic facts and personages
apper, so to speak, twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the seconds as farce” —
What does expectation mean? - if we expect something, it is based on our experience in the past; expectation based on past
information, past knowledge
- Novel begins with a reference to expectation (3); if we expect something we do so because
we are reading a certain replatinship between the past, present and future
- Title: the end of Howard? The goal of Howard? But no apostrophe
- Apostrophe indicates possession (one of the themes of the text) (whether or not a woman can
own property and pass it on)
Who owns Howards End? No apostrophe, no definite possession; who was howard?;
does this place mean the end of something; or what end? The end of the country life?
The Wilcox‟s seem more interested in posessions, consumerism, interested in having
Howards End. Are a fairly unpleasant crude of people (aside from Mrs. Wilcox)
- Mr Wilcox has taken advantage of imperialism to make his money, is both capitalist and
imperialist, takes pride in that; thrives in the chaos of live in London; he and his progeny are
quite literally allergic to the natural world (hay fever)
Mrs Wilcox is associate with a wisp of hay apart form her, her whole family has
- Henry is logical, organized, has specific views, criticized in text by Margaret because he has no
time for art, culture, internal life, emotions, is on a forward track to by cars; his view of society is
that it is a machine and that it has certain predictable outcomes (163)
repetition of the word „unseen‟ and various words like „unseen‟ that seem to come up.
Represent some kind of mystical sense of understanding other people
Some sort of special sensitivity to people, unseen, and unsaid things that miss Avery,
et al, some how knows to pick up on
o Miss Avery some how knows to create a nursery at Howards End. how
does she know that?
How does Mrs. Wilcox know, without having ever being told, that Paul and Helen at
the beginning of the novel have a connection that is broken off.
They see what is unseen by others, they understand what is unspoken by others, and it
is not quite clear how this happens, or what this is.
The word unseen also means unobserved, or unnoticed might we draw out from
unseen to figure out if there is something the novel doesn‟t see? Is there something in
the relationship between the Shlegels, the basts and the wilcoxes what is unseen, unspoken, or unnoticed in the novel as a whole is there something Forster‟s not
seeing, that the novel is not seeing is there something not being mentioned, dealt
with that‟s important that us as readers are to pick up on?
Forster playing with liberialism as both an economic system and the vague sense of progressive,
Classic liberalism: Adam Smith‟s Wealth of Nations (1776)
Basic theme was that the wealth of nations and therefore the wealth and welfare of
everybody was best increased by a capitalist system where there was minimal state
Laissez faire (i.e. non-interference of the state in th lives of the individuals).
Reinforced the social ideas of freedom which insisted on no or minimal state
intervention on the grounds that any interference by the state would reduce the
individual‟s freedom of action.
o Neo-liberalism: why for example, people in the united states didn‟t want a
national healthcare system as it would be government intervention in the lives
of the citizens, when they should be doing it for themselves
Always a question of freedom
These ideas were grounded in utilitarianism (the greatest good for the greatest
number). They were perfect for the newly arriving industrial middle-class, since they
not only provided a critique of the protectionist closed system whereby wealth was
the province of the aristocracy, but also, by the elevation of freedom to the status of a
For the Victorians, classical liberalism and its economic doctrines were considered
correct no just because they worked (for the rich) but because they were morally right
o Can see this in Mr. Wilcox, believes in classic liberalism
o Always a bit of charged quality, based on the class system those who are
rich are deserving of being rich, those who are poor are deserving of being
poor because they have not worked hard enough (purtianism, Calvinism if
you work hard, God will provide) the idea that people couldn‟t get work,
wasn‟t even thought of at the time.
For Victorian society, the greatest good of the greatest number did not mean the
alleviation of the poor‟s poverty if it in any way interfered with the importance of the individual‟s responsibility for his actions. It would in fact be injurious t othe poor to
give them any form of state assistance. The only „true‟ way of improvement of the
poor‟s condition was by allowed them to face the harsh economic reality of the world
and thus learn the essential moral quality of thrift
o Espoused by Henry Wilcox, he has benefited from this type of system. his
freedom has been approved of, has been allowed that his freedom
encroaches on the freedom of others is a whole other problem not discussed
At the end of Victorianism, people started to protest this.
Beginning of the 20 Century: Progressive liberalism
No longer was it a fundamental of liberalism that the state should interfere as little as
possible in the lives of the individuals of which it consists.
The „new liberalism‟, as exemplified by Lloyd George and Churchill, although
maintaining much of the economics of classical liberalism, had a totally different role
for the state. The state was not only there to allow individuals to coexist but also to
ensure the limited welfare of its inhabitants. (1911: national insurance contribution for
unemployment and health benefits dependent on people working if you
couldn‟t find a job, this didn‟t apply to you)
Cradle to grave socialist assistance universal healthcare, unemployment, welfare
ways to help people if they fall into the abyss Bast
o Attempt at progressive liberalism by the Shlegels
o Mr. Wilcox: clear views about the poor: one shouldn‟t have a sentimental
attitude towards the poor (163)
o The Shlegals are „small „l‟ liberal‟ they try to be progressive, generous, try to
help where they can, or at least they like to problem is they feel that people
shouldn‟t be poor ,especially people who have culture. but how one helps
the poor is a bit of a mystery to them they feel for them, but they don‟t
know how one helps them.
The debate they go into in ch 15, this is part of the problem what do
you do if you‟re a millionaire and you want to help the poor? they
can‟t come to any sort of a decision
109 “doing good to humanity …” the narrator speaking for
Margaret says doing good for a few is all she can hope for. o Schlegels aren‟t up for complete social reform, can only see helping a few
this is where they go wrong, as their intervention into Mr Bast‟s life leads to
his eventual death
How much of the past do we keep? Do we keep something like classical liberalism, even though
it disenfranchises most of the population.
The novel is on the cusp of change people are beginning to think of people not as well off as
themselves, worried about the empire, about the first world war.
A struggle as how do you balance the past and the present? How do you take what‟s
good from the past with the ideas of the present
o the economic values of the past, with the progressive liberalism to help the
Modernity, consumerism, industry all of this is in interest in the text how does one deal
with the modern? How do you accept the encroachment on the country and still value the older
things (the house Howards end ie.) and what do you do with Leonard Bast in the midst of this
Mr Wilcox always moving, the world is moving faster and faster, can one hang on to
the values that Ruth Wilcox has, that sense of people can you have Mrs. Wilcox
and Mr. Wilcox at the same time?
Wilcoxes celebrate movement, and change
Shlegels pose certain forms of resistence: value things that are personal, emotional,
reformist, intellectual, cultural
51: Though they want to help the poor, they can‟t understand the poor they can
sympathize, but as they have never been poor they cannot understand though still
separating the classes up and down standing upon. (Leonard bast falls into this abyss
not only economic position, but poverty is the life threatening situation) money
changes our views of what we want and what we need, they way we look at culture
o Sympathizing with Mr. Wilcox in the speech: „not the absence of love, the
absence of coin‟ money makes a difference
o 111: „money is the warp of the world…‟ warp and wuff = basis what is
the basis of society it‟s money plus… doesn‟t say what it is, whether it‟s
human relationships, whether it‟s love. reflection of the unseen? if you
have money, you have to figure out what to do with it. o This is a rich person‟s story the narrator says, money pads the edges of
things .‟. we‟re not interested in those who do not have money.
Ch 6: we‟re not interested in the very poor, we‟re only interested in the middle class
Margaret and Helen, they do have this sort of vague idea of helping the poor being a good thing.
They don‟t know how to go about it, what they end up doing is talk about helping the poor,
where they are actually moving towards disaster.
In contrast to the Wilcoxes they have a more rooted sense to the country and the rural
existence, which is also vague and less focused (174)
Margaret is described as someone with an incisive mind, though surrounding her is
this weird sense of vagueness she tries to think outwards but she can‟t do it
How much do you think the text values the Shlegels way of looking at the world? How much it
actually approves of their values people should be happy, we should help the poor.
Doesn‟t solve anything doesn‟t progress.
Narrator indifferent? Approved of the invisible hand long ago.
Defending the humanities we know biology, we know chemistry
The Shlegels believe in the redemptive power of culture
A belief in the power of history, what comes out of the past and our connection to the
past, believe in paying lipservice to social reform.
At the end of the novel, Helen decides she‟s going to give 5 000 lbs to the Basts
the only movement to social reform the Basts refuse
Are the ideas of Henery Wilcox more effective?
Shlegels notion of reform based on a kind of personal philanthropy:
Noblesse oblige: personal philanthropy: being a noble, or being wealthy means that one has
responsibilities to those who are less fortunate
Social consequences: ineffective because the system doesn‟t have to change;
government doesn‟t need to intercede. things can go on as they always have
o Ie Leonard Bast. Margaret and Helen are trying to help them, but not
necessarily as a planned out social program, but to make themselves feel
better. gives them topics for their dinner parties, becomes a text for them
on how to proceed with social reform. one of their adventures. 34:the poor cannot be cultured because to survive takes up so much of their life. What
distracts Leonard is survival, his poverty allows him a sort of genteel shabbyness, but that‟s all
even when he‟s bought the books, something distracts him it‟s the social conditions under
which he labours. the conditions that nether the Wilcoxes or Shlegels are interested in or can
Not as well developed as other characters see aspect of novel Leonard flat
character subject/ pet of the Shelegels.
Is a bit like his umbrella: persists, he persists but neither the shelegels or the wilcoxes
world view can accommodate Leonard.
The Leonards of the world are identified as a kind of problem at the beginning of ch 6
o 38:Whe he say‟s it‟s not about the poor, we immediately think about the poor,
but then they are immediately disvalued as not important to the text
o we find out he is 20
o notion of poverty being uncommunicable, in the abyss, they are the unseen,
o He and others like him are not valued, are underseen in this culture
o Leonard is what would be called lower-middle class at the time not
o Liberalism has doomed him, he now has to fight for his place. The social
notion that all men are equal has been a death knell to him
o Forcing him to play by the rules of the upper class without the means of the
upper class, without the opportunity
o The angel of Democracy something wrong, bat like…
o This notion of equality has banned him, almost in the abyss, he feels as though
he needs to rise above his station, and assert gentility.
o 42: Ruskin: the gothic as something that is kind of savage and imperfect,
honours the individual crafts person modernization to him meant factories,
homogenization. Ruskin is looking at this incredible landscape in Venice,
Ruskin is eating square things: soup that comes in a square, jello that comes in
a square, meat that is round: even food is industrial made, regular Ruskin‟s approach falls short, isn‟t appropriate for his surroundings.
Trying to model Ruskin, but his surroundings are laughable compared
to what Ruskin is talking about.
We get narrator, we get inside his head, but we don‟t get much of
direct speech from Leonard
o Culture is not necessarily redemptive Leonard is ordinary, but he believes
in the redemptive power of culture.
o What do we do with how he is represented through the narrator, not through
his own speech and in comparison with Ruskin:
Only the rich matter
The narrator can‟t accommodate Leonards life, cannot reach
Leoneards life, and Leonard‟s life cannot reach high art
In some ways Leonard is one of the unseen, he is unconceivable, we
get to know him through indirect discourse, we know he wants to have
a spirit of adventure, and to better himself with culture the narrative
voice seems to parody this aspect of him how can Leonard
understand Ruskin, the gothic cathedrals of Venice when he‟s living in
a stuffy flat Can you appreciate culture if you‟re not born into it.
compare to how the Shlegels can‟t understand poor?
Narrator seems to be putting Leonard down. often ironic often
says things that are meant to pull us in. the conversation he is
having is trite, the food he‟s eating is awful, the place he is living in is
stuffy and he‟s trying to understand Ruskin?
o 46: he guy is in this awful situation, and the narrator is making fun of him
o Leonard is ofcourse in a hopeless situation, every time he attempts to make
himself „better‟ he runs into the fact htat he doesn‟t have enough food to eat,
he is pooor, shabby culture only sits comfortably with those of money. He
can‟t make use of it. He‟s stuck, there‟s absolutely nothing he can do about
275ff: books fall on him, contribute to his death culture maybe not all that redeeming?
Shortness = insignificance of his life, as he is poor?
What do we do then with Leonard?
No one is on Leonards side. Even the Shlegels who try to help him mess it up. Who‟s going to inherit Howards End? Leonard‟s son there‟s a weird sense of
reconciliation? Some kind of dialectic happening, is the son the third term, the combination of
the poor and the intellectual class and somehow Howards end is going to be inherited by this
kind of hybrid child
Son born into a wealthy family. back to money.
5: she doesn‟t mind when Mr. Wilcox „trips her up‟
example of the vaguely liberal mind when faced with Henry
henry has reasons as to why, for example, equality isn‟t necessary (have never been,
and doesn‟t make sense to be) Helen doesn‟t know why equality is necessairy,
which leaves her feeling ashamed.
Helen‟s initial reaction to the Wilcox‟s is positive.
Wilcox men are represented in a pretty extreme way : capitalist, imperialist, no interest in anyone
crushed by social system, have done well, prospered, their politics and views are opposed to
those of the Schlegels
Why does Forster marry them off in the text? Why is Margaret attracted to Henry? And vice
91: life is unmanageable because it is a romance, what does the narrator mean by „romance‟:
Based on emotions
The genre in which one might imagine alternative worlds; what could be as opposed
to what is.
For the Schelgels, in their vague way, that means imagining an alternative world in
which art, culture, literature, equality, progressiveness, socialism, culture, history,
personal relationships, connections between past and present, between people,
between people and the arts, that people shouldn‟t be poor and suffering
Henry has no romance, no sense that there could be another world, and why should he? The
world is good for him, he has whatever he wants.
However the Wilcox‟s are represented, they are winning, they are modernity, eventually they
will take over the Schlegels, it will be technology, and factories these are the things that will
win in the end. This encroachment of urbanization is the craze of movement to Margaret.
Helen also at the end of the novel says “London‟s creeping” towards Howards End.
Red rust: industrialization, urbanization is encroaching
Ruth and Margaret have an inner life the pragmatic Henry does not have.
Ruth is the perfect wife in Henry‟s view, raises children, doesn‟t have ideas of her
own, but has her own inner life
Margaret is a sort of proto-feminist, believes in equality and all these other things
Strange why Margaret would put up with being called „the little woman‟ ort that she
would appreciate the tone in Henry‟s voice when he says on p 223: …what has it
Why doesn‟t she respond to that kind of condescension?
141: treats Margaret as a possession, but struggles with something that money can‟t buy
associates possessing her in marriage with possessing the house
she thinks she can change him?
157 kiss: this exchange is incredibly clinical
159: something defiant about it
because that‟s the only sentence, it takes on importance
has no romance in his soul
doesn‟t agree with her values
what‟s the point? Margaret has a missionary zeal
but these are very entrenched ideals, esp with bringing in religion.
Margaret is up against something which is almost impossible.
Yet strangely enough, with all their up and downs, it works for them.
A condition of England novel: is the relationship symbolic of the condition of England?
The text has a very melancholic tone
Balanced at the end, there‟s a good deal of joy at the end with the baby
Pastoral scene at end, happiness
But there‟s this melancholic tone of the encroachment of industrialization and
modernity Seems to accept that this encroachment is inevitable
Is Forster suggesting that modernity is going to come, but if in the midst of all this
money making and imperialism, we remember the „Margaret” side of the equation,
somehow, in the end it‟s all going to work out ok
Is Forster trying to suggest that even if M and H can‟t connect in the way that M
wishes, they can‟t combine the pros and the passion, is there still the sense that a
relationship between two people might be ok if the two people involved can some
how accommodate their weaknesses and shortcomings
That in purely liberal humanist terms, this may be the closest to only connect we can
achieve to have a relationship that we can realize that each of us is imperfect, that we
each have something to bring to the relationship but there isn‟t going to be some
overarching connect, that doesn‟t happen in human beings. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man 4/21/2013 8:35:00 AM
Is the poem the pinnacle of art that the epiphany and the novel has brought
It is really pedestrian, really conventional.
What‘s the relationship of the author to his or her works?
According to critics, reasonably close to James Joyce‘s first 20 years
Do we read it as a biography?
Part fact part fiction?
Modernism struggling with this: what‘s art after the war? In the face of
tragedy? What‘s the relationship between the artists and his work?
Perspective and POV becomes very important.
To what extent has Stephen‘s life, led to this particular poetic outburst?
What are we supposed to see as the relationship: closure?
What is that poem
A fiction about fiction.
You as the reader are supposed to be as self aware as the writer is
writing this text, and as the author character is in creating his own
Is it a veil for the life of the author, or does it have a life of it‘s
Artistic creation is a process
Can see the ways by which Stephen, the author figure, goes about
creating his story
Little moments where Stephen discusses artistic theory
Open ending no absolute closure a device to sort of give you a
clue that the fictional world is supposed to become a part of the readers reality in the process of interpretation here an essence of
didacticism in this text.
Author figure self conscious of being an author
Self conscious text referring to itself as an artifice, a creation, not just a
mirror into real life. --> epigraph to the novel and Stephen‘s name
The novel points out as a reflection of life it is untenable: we can‘t see it just
as a reflection of James Joyce‘s life
Even the representation of a real persons life as written in a
fictional text cannot be a real representation of the real life.
We all fictionalize to some extent our own lives. We structure things
in certain ways, we order things in certain ways. We take into
account in stories of our own lives the stories told by our family.
Being asked to consider this in the text how does one capture the
time when one was 3? We invent.
Opening sentence = clue that it is a fictionalizing of a life.
‗A‘ portrait not ‗the‘ portrait, there are many more portraits that could
exist, many more combinations of events that could be told .
the first two pages enact the entire text in microcosm suggested by
author fictionalizing his own life, putting in these clues upfront.
Begin with the voice of the father, end with the impression of voice of a
voice of society …
Beginning: series of impressions, sensory impressions that‘s what‘s
important to Stephen a long way through the text the sensory, how you
name sensory impressions
Renditions of the 5 senses. father told him the story, hearing the
story, looking through the glass, taste coming in with the lemon
platt no logical order, this is a kid. These are supposed to be the
sensory impressions he has a child. Despite this being a fiction, we right away have the introduction of real
Colours become important during moments of antagonism in the text
2: what does he have to apologize for?
Eileen is of a different religion, she is a protestant viscous conflict
from the start.
Images/ Motifs: Roses, Water, Guilt, Birds, idea of a Labyrinth, Religion and
all of it‘s attendant complications, Family, Sexuality, Guilt Religion is the
sort of umbrella over all of these things
Stephen is fascinated with language
Interested in words, and their sounds and associations
6: beginning to recognize that people use words differently
relationship between the Irish language and the English language
8: sounds of words and what they mean are really important to him
20: the actual tactility of the words, the onomatopoeia.
Stephen as an outsider
Maybe the artist is an outsider, maybe not
But he is in his recognition of language, his family is well off, he is
an observers stands back and watches things
Position in between in the beginning , can‘t figure out where he
Polarities that come out in the text: come out early on at the Christmas
25: Morality, politics, religion : Dante: priests are the abettors of
28: fundamentalism, where does fundamentalism sit in Stephen‘s
move to aesthetic theory? Has to get away from it to produce some
aesthetic theory that is going to be read otherwise than by the
Catholic church. Stephen has a respect for religious authority: whether he‘s one of the flock,
or ome of the sinners
In each chapter Stephen comes up with absolutes: has to go through a sort
of labyrinth to come through these: Sex, truth, religion. Each one of his
absolute answers , maybe even art at the end, fail him
77: he can‘t put himself in another‘s shoes, he can only respond to things
that happen in the outside world if they respond to something inside him .
Analyze and put into words his state of experience.
Largely throughout the novel, he uses language to sort through the
chaos of sensory experience function
Though in his 1 sexual experience, which would assume to be a
sensual experience, he is mute, maybe because it is something that
hasn‘t happened before
o 84: he can‘t speak, he can‘t kiss her
the word ‗kiss‘ defines how Stephen goes through life from being
asked if he kisses his mother at school, can‘t kiss prostitute can‘t
figure the answer out when he‘s a kid, doesn‘t know what it‘s about
trying to figure it out with prostitute?
The novel is structured to some extend by his relationships with
women: mother, Dante, ―Mother Church‖
75: ―a vision of their life…‖ : sees word fetus and is slightly titillated by it,
the one thing that allows him to see what people at school must have been
like is this one word carved in the desk, not his dads explanations. Only
reason it is real to him is that it relates, speaks to, the sexual feelings he‘s
been having can only relate to, or feel something, if it relates to the
feelings he has himself.
Masturbation fantasies: a kind of metaphor for his self absorption. Part of
the thing that makes him so unlikable, physically and psychologically, he‘s
majoring in himself. appropriate for his adolescence?
Stops us from sympathizing with him in his trials and tribulations. Language
It‘s not concrete enough for Stephen
6: his name: right from the start, Stephen can‘t in a sense, name himself.
He knows what his name is, but he doesn‘t know what the name means
7: idea of language being multiple: belt can be put around your waist, can
be a punch.
35: series of impressions that have come up as a result of the word
―smugging‖, which he does not know what it means
11: the kiss: interested in: what does that mean
39: good example of stream of consciousness from the spell on the rectors
breath to Napoleon
it‘s beautiful, but the smell of it makes him feel nauseated
Dealing with all these sensory perceptions and is trying to name them. Can‘t
name things. Doesn‘t know what they are
Constantly conscious of the way in which language works.
Stephen in the text is coming to know himself through the process of
naming. He names things.
Language starts out primarily as a means to explain sensory experiences.
Moves slowly from that to be a vehicle of abstraction.
Beginning language relates to concrete sensory experiences
Becomes a part of the whole conceptual system he develops at the
end of the novel in his writing, his reality
Writing in the text is ambivalent, ambiguous
A way to order the world. The world is chaotic in the beginning.
Language is a way to order all of this chaotic experience.
In beginning Language as a sort of taxonomy.
Naming all of these things in the world he‘s coming into contact
with for the first time
Becomes more difficult as he moves, becomes more difficult to read As we move from words like ‗belt‘ to more abstract things like ‗kiss‘
The naming doesn‘t work: the thing it‘s supposed to fit doesn‘t
necessarily do it‘s role: belt can be around your waist or a punch
13: poets: they know what wods are, what words mean. Have
command of the language where as he is let down by it, playing
catch up. His understanding of the world will increase as he
understands it more. They have power because they have that
knowledge poetry and rhetoric are key to him as to how things
are going to go
o He associates in this thing his lack of conceptual
sophistication with a lack of sophisticated language.
The words slip away, he can‘t quite get them, they‘re not quite making
sense to him.
For Joyce language precedes experience. As much as the early bit of the text
seems to imply that sensory experience comes first, and then you try to put
a name on it Joyce throughout the text is constantly suggesting that this
isn‘t the case. That sensory experience does not come first, language
precedes it. Stephens task as he grows as a person and a artist, is partly
that of making his experience fit the categories that are supplied by the
language inherent. We are born into an already existing discourse. Whatever
language we‘re born into, we‘re born into a pre existing system. We can‘t
experience anything without having the language for it. (structuralism)
Stephen is born into the language of Ireland, the language of the
Church. If he is going to come up with something new to say, he is
going to have to come to terms with that or create something new.
why he creates new words.
Why Irish language becomes important to him in the end
52: if he learns the words, he will understand the world: the words
precede the world.
Language is a social phenomenon: part of the issue
Language is instrumental in inserting Stephen in the social order. Language has a meaning because a group of speakers of that
language have decided that that‘s the word that we use for ‗desk‘.
In French ‗pepitre‘ : completely different word. Association that this
is a ‗desk‘ not a ‗giraffe‘ it‘s what we‘ve agreed to call it.
Is a social convention, not natural in other languages it‘s called
language is a social phenomenon
Language is always loaded down with social significance. Part of the
fundamental social structure that we‘re born into that determines what we
can think and what we can say.
For Stephen learning language is a way for him to situate himself in the
like he‘s trying on different identities: that of the sexual sinner, that
of the holy man. Each one of these comes up with a different
discourse, a different kind of language he has to learn
maybe why he goes through such extremes.
Trying to get out of social convention
Paradoxical: when he goes out with prostitutes, doing it because it‘s
a sin, doing it in order to be beastly.
Even when he repents after that retreat, he repents in exactly the
same language he uses to describe the prostitutes
The same passion he uses to sin, is the same language he uses to
93: anticipating the retreat, anticipating that his sinful ways have to
be repented for. The language that he uses to describe himself is
that of the beast
97: first day after the retreat: example of his self absorption
o Language: not stream of consciousness. At those moments
when he‘s thinking of his sin, his repentance, the style is
standard narrative: given the absolutist language of the
Father. No stream of consciousness. A kind of absolute
language. o 100: extraordinary language, bringing up sensory experience,
someone else‘s take on the sensoryness.
o Extreme language appeals to Stephne who is looking for
Comes out of sermon a holy man, but not really transferred his passion
for sinning and the prostitutes, to something else.
Not clear if his new passion is for God, the church or religion, or the
language of extremity that he is going to be able to harn