Eng1020E September 13, 2011
Lecture 1 – Modes & Genres
Ways of Analyzing Texts
Character evolution/development (main focus being on the protagonist).
Personal connection/Reader’s engagement.
Narrative point of view.
Language, style, structure, and diction.
Sigmund Freud Carl Jung Northrop Frye (Archetypal Critic)
Carl Jung: The Mind’s 3 Parts
1. Personal Consciousness
2. Personal Unconsciousness
3. Collective Unconsciousness
o An impersonal, universal space in the psyche that is inaccessible (to the human
mind). Here we can find a cumulative experience/imagery - stirring up the same
emotions and feelings - that exists in all people of all places and all times.
o We all respond to stories and myths, and all (subconsciously) know them and can
tap into them. (Things we can instinctively understand.)
o These are archetypes (basic fundamental mythic stories). Authors then build
around them when they write stories. They can be found in dreams, fantasies,
o Psychological inheritance.
Northrop Frye: The Archetypal Critic
Frye developed a mythic/archetypal criticism.
A way of categorizing reading.
“Every type of literature can be read in a structure.”
Reading archetypally allows us to understand the deeper meaning and myth of the story,
tying it together with the other stories of its kind, uncovering the most abstract meaning.
All stories boil down to an element of desire. As humans we all lack and yearn for,
something. Therefore all stories involve a guest to fulfill this desire. This is known as the
Frye’s Theory: Every text involves images and mirrors different works. He divorces the
text from the world and the audience so that we are only looking at texts talking to other
texts – a world of words! – and examining symbols and common themes.
Reading archetypally involves not thinking of influences, the author, the world,
perspectives, or anything outside the texts . Looks only at the (common) skeletal
structure of the stories.
Stories all break down to the re-occurring “kernels” or themes. Frye’s Concept of the Circle
*All stories can fit somewhere between ROMANCE and ANTI-ROMANCE. All stories flow in a
circle through the stage.
Triumph of desire over the actual; unity of man with self, others, nature, God;