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Lecture 8

Environmental Science 1021F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Urban Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Smog

Environmental Science
Course Code
Danny Bednar

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Urban Sustainability
How do Cities relate to Environmental Issues?
What is a city?
o In Canada: > 1000 people, 400 per sq km, special continuity, integration
o Cities drink water drain from local sources
o Give off waste water
o Produce waste
o Effect where pop. Is and where they move
o Education rates, birth rates, socialization
o Imitations of reductions
o Actual form
o Build form
o Natural pathways, (squirrels etc. living with us) even though its not their natural habitats
Canadian Cities
Why is Vancouver lower than Ottawa?
o Metro areas
All of the urban area around a city
Built up things
o Actual city of Vancouver is only 631 000 people
Usually mean metro Vancouver though (suburbs part of the Vancouver metro
areas each have their own city councils, etc.)
Canadian Metro Areas
Conventional what we used to
o Core cities and then cities around it
o Important to recognize with environmental issues
Differees etee it proper’s ad it etros
o City councils vs city suburbs
Global Metro Area
Largest North America Mexico City
Almost all the largest are in the developing world except Tokyo
An Urban World
Massive growth of the developing world leads to more than half of the world population is in
urban cities
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Largest growth in Asia and Africa
Our planet is becoming an urban planet
More huas lie i ities tha do’t
Largely taking place in developing world
since the industrial revolution, the planet has undergone a significant mass urbanization
o humans as a whole moving into cities
urban geographers consider this in three stages
o First Urban Revolution (8000-2000BCE) Evolution of agriculture and markets foster
settlement patterns that are more dense
Birth of cities
Middle East, Mediterranean world, and East Asia
Nomads agriculture
o Second Urban Revolution (1700-1950) the industrial revolution fosters dramatic
increases in urban populations
Big one!!
Massive increases in ppl living in close quarters
Factories built and jobs needed they need to have ppl closer
18th cent. ppl move into smaller spaces bc industrial rev. makes ppl need to live
there without travelling great distances
o Third Urban Revolution (50s - ongoing) a global manifestation of European and North
American urban trends
Need to move to the city to educate, work jobs, send kids to schools, etc.
o Left axis %%%
North Amer. 1983 > 70% (already urban continent) but increase to just over 80
Big shifts in China and Africa
Models of Urban Form
Not all cities look the same
Concentric simplest
o Downtown zone
o Ppl living around it are ppl who work in the core and moves out into the country where
ppl make goods to sell there
Sector Model diff zones of ppl
o High income neighbor hoods, low income neighborhoods, industrial areas
o Still downtown core
Multiple Nuclei
o Mixed up type
o Manu factoring next to low income (cheap housing)
o Complexity of diff types of land
City becomes complex place
City is not just one type of thing
Urban Ecology
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find more resources at
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