Environmental Science 1021F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Surface Runoff, Aeration, Evapotranspiration

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November 12th, 2012
Water Part I
!
Water Quantity-->Supply and demand
!Supply:
!!-available form/type/quality/location/timing, accessibility, politics
!
!Demand:
!!-population, use rates, politics
Hyrdologic cycle
!-precipitation falls, hits surface
!-infiltration ---> movement of water from top of soil, into the soil
!-percolation ---> movement through the soil
!-movement through soil, pools in open body of water
!-evaporates and returns to atmosphere as water vapour
!
!-water may not infiltrate, could just run off
!-end up again in open bodies of water
!-or taken by vegetation
!!-therefore evapotranspiration and returns to atmosphere
Annual precipitation
!-Hadley/convection cells regulate where precipitation falls
!!-latitude
!-also topography
!!-i.e. mountains on west coast
71% of the entire planet is ocean
about 2.5% is fresh water-->hard to approximate
!-very little of this is accessible, most as ice and glaciers
!-we can use ground water and surface water
97.5% of water is salt water!
Water is renewable, only if used below its sustainable yield
Will focus on surface water and ground water b/c its readily accessible
Surface runoff
!water that does not infiltrate into soil or taken up by plants
!-simply runs off, drains into a watershed or drainage basin
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