Old growth- not disturbed by humans or natural disaster (22%) Second-growth forests- have been disturbed in some way (63%) Indicators-> you can see sky, maybe darkening/charring of trees. Tree farms and plantations-> species being planted, or something being harvested (5%) Trees farms and plantations are increasing, old growth forests are decreasing. Take in more than just co2, make cleaner air. Evapotranspiration->taking in water, water released in purer than it was. Affects not only the forest, but regional areas around. Fuel wood--> still heavy reliance on fuel wood. Energy ows through trophic levels of food chain. A lot of tree roots, also a physical barrier. Trees grow slower than tropical, quicker than boreal. Largest forest type in the world->mostly in developed countries. Most too far north to be economically viable. Be able to list forest types in canada. Home to some special species!->b/c near great lakes. 33% of canadian species at risk live in carolinian zone.