Chapter 4Human Health and Heavy Metal Exposure:
Metals are notable for their wide environmental dispersion from such activity;
their tendency to accumulate in select tissue of the body; and their overall
potential to be toxic even at relatively minor levels of exposure.
Some metals such as iron and copper are essential life and play a big role.
However, some metals are xenobiotics they have no useful role in human
One of the reflection of the importance of metals relative to other potential
hazards in their making by the U.S agency for toxic substances and disease
registry (ATSDR) which lists the hazards present in toxic waste sites according to
their prevalence and severity of their toxicity
The first, second, third and sixth hazards respectively on the list are heavy metals:
lead, mercury, arsenic and cadmium.
Exposure to metals can occur through a variety of routes: metals may be inhaled
as dust or fumes. Some metals can be vaporized and inhaled. Metals can also be
ingested involuntarily from food and drink.
The amount of actually absorbed from the digestive tract can vary widely,
depending on the chemical form of the metal and the age and nutrional status of
Once a metal is absorbed it distributes in tissues and organs.
Excretion typically occurs primarily through the kidneys and digestive tracts, but
metals tend to persist in some storage sties like the liver, bones and kidneys for
years or decades.
Toxicity of metals commonly involves the brain and the kidney, but other
manifestation occurs, and some metals such as arsenic are clearly capable of
An exposure remains high or is increasing in many developing countries through
a rapid increase in vehicles combusting leaded gasoline and in polluting
Individuals will absorb more lead in their food if their diets are deficient in
calcium, iron or zinc.
Depending on the dose, lead exposure in children and adults can cause a wide
spectrum of health problems, ranging from convulsion, cona, renal failure and
death at the high end to subtle effects on metabolism and intelligence at the low
end of exposure.
Children are particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxin effects of lead
Low level lead exposure in children less then five years of age, results in deficits
in intellectual development, as manifested by lost of IQ points.
Maternal bone lead stores are mobilized at an accelerated rate during pregnancy
and location are associated with decrements in birth weight, growth rate and
Mercury has been increasing in importantance as a widespread contaminant.
When deposited in soil, organic mercury compounds are slowly broke down into
inorganic compounds; conversely inorganic mercury can be converted by
microorganism in soil and water into the organic compound methyl mercury,
which is then biocentrated up the food chain.
At lower but more chronic level of exposure, a typical excitability, memory loos,
insomnia, timidity and sometimes delirium- that were once commonly seen to
workers exposed to mercury.
Mothers exposed to mercury in 1955 in minmata bay, Japan, gave birth to infants
with mental retardation, retention of primitive reflexes, cerebella symptoms, and
Even at much lower levels, mercury exposure on part of pregnant women through
deity intake of fish and whale meat, an important regional food staple is
associated with decrements in motor function, language, memory, and neural
transmission in their offspring’s.
Arsenic is a toxic and carcinogenic heavy metal, and human exposures are
Significant exposure to arsenic occurs through both anthropological and natural
Widespread dispersion of arsenic is a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels
in which a