Lecture 3 Nutrients etc

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Environmental Science
Environmental Science 1021F/G
Marnie Branfireun

ES1021FLecture 3September 28 2011Part 1 FlowsCycles of NutrientsWhat are nutrientsNutrients are any chemicals that are required for the proper functioning of organismsAutotrophs use inorganic nutrients in their nutritionAnimals require organic nutritionthe biomass of other organismsExamples of inorganic nutrientsGaseous carbon dioxide CO2Ionic nitrate NO and ammonium NH343Ionic phosphate PO42Ionic sulphate SOgaseous sulphur dioxide SO4222Ionic calcium Ca magnesium Mg potassium KNutrient flows and cyclesNutrient cycling refers to the transfers transformations and recycling of nutrientsA nutrient budget is a quantitative estimate of the quantities present in compartments and the fluxes rates of movement between themThe Soil EcosystemSoil is an ecosystem comprised of inorganic material organic matter and a great diversity of organismsIt is derived from original parent materials which over time are modified by climatic factors especially percolating water and organisms Page 1 of 12ES1021FLecture 3September 28 2011Mature soils develop distinctive features that are dependent on local climatic conditions and the kind of ecological community in which they have developedFactors that determine soil typesChernozema soil that develops in natural grasslandsPodzoldevelops in coniferous boreal forestBrown forest soildevelops in temperate hardwood forestGleysoldevelops in cool temperate habitats that are periodically waterloggedSolonetzdevelops in desert communitiesOrganicdevelops in fens and bogsSoil HorizonsSoil horizons are distinctive layers that vary in their physical and chemical propertiesLitter layerorganic matter identifiable as plant litterDuff layerlitter fragments still visibleHumus layerwellhumified organic matterA horizona zone of eluvation outleaching of organics Fe Al Ca MgB horizona zone of eluviation deposition of materials leached from the A horizonCparent materialsRthe regolith or underlying rockPage 2 of 12
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