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Film Studies
Film Studies 1020E
Gregg Redner

Psychoanalytical Approaches and Film Analysis: Freud and Psychoanalysis: - Freud’s psychoanalytic theory provided new insight and a radically new approach to the analysis and treatment of what can be classified as “abnormal: adult behaviour” - Freud’s approach was novel in that it recognized that neurotic behaviour is not random or meaningless, but rather is goal directed. With this approach, the analyst was given a method for understanding the behaviour as meaningful and informative while at the same time looking for the purpose behind behaviour without denying its physiological aspects - According to Freud, all human beings are born with a natural tendency to satisfy his or her biological needs for food, shelter and warmth - Satisfying these needs it not only practical Three Principal Tenets of Psychoanalysis: -he begins with an explanation of the three forces of the psychical apparatus – the id, the ego, and the superego - The ego has the quality of being conscious and is responsible for controlling the demands of the id of the instincts, becoming aware of stimuli and serving as a link between the id and the external world. In addition the ego responds to stimulation either adaption or flight, regulates activity, and strives to achieve pleasure and avoid unpleasure - Finally the superego, whose demands are managed by the id, is responsible for the limitation of satisfactions and represents the influence of others, such as parents, teachers, and role models, as well as the impact of racial, societal, and cultural tradition Instincts: - Freud states that the instincts are the ultimate cause of all behaviour - The two basic instincts are Eros (love) and the destructive or death instinct - The purpose of Eros is to establish and preserve unity through relationship. On the other hand, the purpose of the death instinct is to undo connections and unity via destruction - The two instincts can either operate against each other through repulsion or combine with each other through attraction Four Phrases in Sexual Development: - Freud (1949) contends the sexual life beings with manifestations that present themselves soon after birth (P.23) - The four main phrases.... 1. During the oral phase, the individual places emphasis on providing satisfaction for the needs of the mouth, which emerges as the first erotogenic zone 2. During the sadistic-anal phases, satisfaction is sought though aggression and in the excretory function 3. During the phallic phase, the young boy enters the Oedipus phase where he fears his father and castration while simultaneously fantasizing about sexual relations with his mother. The young girl, in contrast, enters the Electra phase, where she experiences penis envy, which often eliminates in her turning away from sexual life altogether. Following the phallic phase is a period of latency, in which sexual development becomes to a halt. 4. Finally, in the genital phase, the sexual function is completely organized and the coordination of sexual urge towards pleasure is completed. Errors occurring in the development of the sexual function result in homosexuality and sexual perversions, according to Freud. The three Psychical Processes: - Freud (1949) defined the qualities of the psychical process as being either conscious, preconscious, or unconscious 1. Ideas considered to be conscious are those of which we are aware, yet they remain conscious only briefly 2. Preconscious ideas are defined as those that are capable of becoming conscious 3. In contrast, unconscious ideas are defined as those that are not easily accessible but can be inferred, recognized,
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