10/27/09 Film Sound I:
• What is the importance of sound in the film experience? (Lang’s M)
• How does sound convey meaning in relation to the images?
• What is the function of the voice? What different functions can it have?
• What principles govern the use of music? What practices?
• What principles govern the use of sound effects? What practices?
• Why do we call them motion pictures? Pictures? Movement? What is the foreground
here (image is important)?
History of Film Sound:
• 1895 – 1927 Silent Era (Film cross borders easily)
• Live music. Why?
• 1927-1930 –> The beginnings of synchronized sounds.
• Warner bros.- The Vitaphone System (sound-on-disk)
• Fox-Movietone sound system (Sound optically recorded on film).
• The Jazz Singer (1927)
• 1930-1941 – Innovations in Cinema Sound:
• Eisenstein, Pudovkin, and Alexandrov.
• A cumbersome reality
• The coming of cultural specificity
• Multi-national versions
• 19502 – Present Stereophonic to Digital:
• 1950s – Stereo sounds • 1970s – Dolby and surround sound
• 1990s – Digital sound (one sound family)
The elements of Film Sound:
• Sound can interact with the image in a variety of ways:
a) It can parallel
b) It can counterpoint
c) It can..?
• Is the sound we here in film actually happening? Footsteps in the hall...
• Claudia Gorbman & Michel Chion (sound masking)
Synchronous and A Synchronous Sound:
• The concept comes from S