Food Study Guide Summary.docx

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Foods and Nutrition
Foods and Nutrition 1021
Jennifer Broxterman

Food Study Guide Summary 11/6/2012 12:25:00 PM Nutrition:  Study of nutrient + biologically active compounds in food and body o Nutrient – indispensible to body’s function  required to live and grow Energy Yielding Nutrients:  CARBS: 4kcal/g  LIPIDS: 9kcal/g  PROTEIN: 4kcal/g Non-Energy Yielding: bodily processes, structures (ex. Ca in bones)  Water  Vitamins  Minerals Essential Nutrients:  Body cannot produce therefore obtained through diet. o Water, vitamins, minerals (important to health), some macronutrients Energy: capacity to do work  Measured in calories: o Amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temp. of 1L of water by 1 c o Food (chemical energy)  mechanical, electrical, heat energy Nutritious Diet:  Adequacy: all proper essential nutrients  Balance: number of types of foods in balance with another – high in one nutrient paired with food rich in another  Calorie Control: foods that provide enough energy to maintain weight  Moderation  Variety: different foods day to day Research: Canada’s Food Guide: Functional Foods: offer health benefits beyond meeting basic nutrient needs Phytochemicals: found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients – may promote health  Different then vitamins or other nutrients because? o Nonessential o Protect humans against disease  Act as: o Antioxidant o Mimick hormones o Inhibit cell division o Protect DNA from damage o Inhibit development of new blood vessels in cancerous tumors Food vs. Supplement:  Choose wide variety of foods – some may require additional supplements to account for missing nutrients DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes  Recommendations for total energy, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals and water  Based on HEALTHY populations o Include:  RDA – recommended dietary allowance  Some nutrients don’t have RDA’s  UL – upper limit  EAR – estimated average requirement  AMDR – acceptable macronutrient distribution range  Expressed as a % of daily caloric intake  Carbs: 45-65%  Fats: 20-35%  Proteins: 10-35%  AI – adequate intake  Some guesswork Nutrition Label: Daily Value: Based on a 2000 calorie/day diet  5% DV = LITTLE  15% DV = LOT Human Body: Cells:  Digestive tract cells live for 3 days before reproducing  RBC: 120 Days  Liver: reproduce quickly or whenever needed  Skin: 10-120 days  Muscle: yearly  Brain: never DNA:  23 pairs of chromosomes Nutragenomics:  Relationship between nutrition and genes Digestive System: GI:  Absorb Nutrients  Leave some – fibre Stomach:  Chyme – liquefy/mash + gastric juices (water, enzymes and HCl)  Protein digestion Small Intestines:  Duodenum  Jejunum  Ileum  Digestive Enzymes
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