Food and Nutrition 1021 – Lesley Macaskill – Lecture 003
Wednesday, September 25 th
Know Canada's food guide
Know AMDR ranges
Know serving amounts, not necessarily how much an adult or child needs.
Food Labels & Regulations, Phytochemicals
Identify the mandatory components of a food label, describe the purposes of food labels and recall
which foods require nutrition facts tables.
Explain the terms used in nutrition facts tables, such as serving size, servings per container, etc.
Differentiate between nutrient amounts and percentages of daily values in the nutrition facts table
Recognize the 13 nutrients required to be on the nutrition facts table and the units for each
Calculate the amount of starch in a food using the information in the nutrition facts table
Provide an example of and describe the difference between biological role claims, health claims,
nutrient contents descriptors and nutrition facts.
Recall the diet-related health claims allowed on food labels in Canada.
Choose the most nutrient-dense food when presented with 2 nutrition facts tables.
Identify phytochemicals, potential benefits and food sources discussed in class
Define and list potential benefits of functional foods, probiotics and plant sterols
What Foods don't need a food label or to list nutritional information?
What Food Labels Must Incline
The common or usual name of the product The name & address of the manufacturer, packer or distributor
The net contents in terms of weight, measure or count
The nutrient contents of the product
• Nutrition Facts panel
The ingredients, in descending order of predominance by weight
Nutritional Facts Panel
Must list calories plus 13 core nutrients:
1. Fat (total)
2. Saturated Fat
3. Trans Fat
6. Carbohydrate (total)
10. Vitamin A
11. Vitamin C
Sometimes serving size can be misleading.
Nutritional Facts Panel
Percent Daily Values (%DV)
• Describes how much a serving of food contributes to your total intake of a nutrient
• Based on a diet of 2000 Calories per day
• Can be used to determine if a product is low or high in a particular nutrient
Calculating % Daily Value
• The Daily Value for iron s 14mg.
• You see that a product contains 2 mg of iron.
• What is the % DV of iron in this food?
14% Nutritional Facts can tell you about more nutrients (optional)
Fat, Cholesterol & Sodium
Nutrient amounts and percentages of Daily Values
• Grams of fat per serving
• Mg of cholesterol
• Mg sodium
• Grams of carbohydrate per serving including starch, fibre, and sugars
◦ Breakdown shows grams of dietary fibre and sugar
◦ The sugars include those that occur naturally in the food plus any added sugars.
Example 2 slices of wonder bread
total grams – carbs 37
grams fibre – 1
grams sugar – 3
33 – just subtract fibre and sugar
• Grams of protein per serving
• Is there a % DV for protein listed?
In Canada we do not see a % DV for Canada.
The Daily Values are of two types
Some suggest an intake goal to strive for
Examples: vitaminsA & C
Others constitute healthy daily maximums
Examples: cholesterol, total fat, saturated & trans fat
Nutrient Function Claims Formerly called “biological roles claims”
Acarefully worded, prescribed statement on a food that meets strict criteria that outlines the role a
nutrient may have on our biological system.
• Link a food or food component with reduced risk of disease or a condition
• New to Canadian labels in 2003
• 5 claims are permitted on how diet affects health
• The health claim must be followed by a statement that the product is a good source of the
Permitted Diet-Related Health Claims – examples
• “moderation in intake of sodium may reduce the risk for high blood pressure”
• “diets low in saturated and trans fat may reduce the risk for heart disease”
• “a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer”
• “a healthy diet with adequate calcium and regular exercise may help to achieve strong bones in
children and adolescents and may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in older adults”
Nutrient Content Claims
• Claims about the amount of a nutrient in a food
• regulated statements made when a food meets certain criteria
• often on the front of food packages
• a quick and easy way to get information about a food
Light – can be used on foods that are reduced in fat or reduced in calories.
Nutrient Content Claims – when you want to decrease the amount of certain nutrients • none or hardly any of this nutrient
Free • an exam ple is “ sodium free”
• a small amount
• an exam ple is “ low fat”
• at least 25% less of the nutrient than
Reduce a similar product
• an exam ple is “ reduced in Calories”
• can be used on foods that are reduced
in fat or reduced in Calories
• contains a useful am ount of the
• an exam ple is “ source of fibre”
High or • Provides 15% or more of the DV of
good the nutrient
• an exam ple is “ good source of 9
source essential nutrients”
Very High • Provides 25% or more of the DV of
or the nutrient
Excellent • an exam ple is “ excellent source of
source calcium ”
Nutrient Content Descriptors
What Food Products have Nutrition Facts?
Almost all pre-packaged foods have Nutrition Facts, with some exceptions:
• fresh fruit and vegetables • raw meat/poultry (except ground), fish and seafood
• foods prepared or processed at the store
◦ bakery items, sausage, salads
• foods that contain very few nutrients
◦ coffee beans, tea leaves, spices
• alcoholic beverages
Use Nutrition Facts to make Informed Food Choices
• to help you choose foods that meet your needs
• to easily compare similar foods
• to look for foods with more or less of a specific nutrient
• to select foods for special diets
Canada must add nutrients to anything made from wheat.
List of Ingredients
• all of the ingredients for a food are listed by weight, from the most to the least (the ingredient
that is in the largest amount is listed first)
• is present on prepackaged foods
• is a source of allergy information
• is a source of certain nutrient information
• foods consist of thousands of different chemicals
• Can be beneficial, neutral or harmful
• Consider how differently they can affect individuals, at different doses or at different life stages
Research on phytochemicals is in its infancy
• What is current today will likely be challenged a year from now by further studies
In most cases, the health benefits observed with intakes of certain foods cannot be ascribed to
What do phytochemicals do in the body?
Some phytochemicals have profound effects on the body through actions such as
• Acting as antioxidants • Mimicking hormones
• Altering blood constituents in ways that may protect against some diseases
Whole Grains, Wine, and Tea
• Historically, diets containing whole grains, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, teas, and red wines
have been reputed to possess health-promoting qualities
• They all contain flavonoid phytochemicals
• Flavus means yellow
One flavonoid of red wine/grapes has disease-fighting qualities
However, the amount of it in the wine/grapes may be too low to benefit human health
The potential benefits may not be wo