Foods and Nutrition 1021 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Cod Liver Oil, Dicoumarol, Energy Brands

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Chapter 7: The Vitamins
Definition and Classification of Vitamins
Inessential to life
Essential to body
Vitamins
o Organic compounds vital to life
o Needed in minute amounts
Precursosrs/ Provitamins
o Compounds in foods converted to active vitamins
The only disease a vitamin can cure is the one caused by a deficiency of that vitamin
Two classes of vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
o Vitamins ADEK
o Because they are fat soluble they go through body as if they are fat
Water soluble vitamins
o Vitamins B & C
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Absorbed into the lymph, travel in the bod in association with protein carriers
Deficiencies are most common in someone who is unable to absorb fat well or has a low
fat diet
Vitamin A
Three active forms in body
o Retinol
o Retinal & retinoic acid
Good food sources
o Liver, fortified milk
o Deep orange fruits & dark green leafy vegetables (sweet potatoes, carrots, spinach,
"bok choy", broccoli, apricots, mango, cantaloupe)
Beta - Carotene
If you have too much, your skin can turn orangey
Functions of Vitamin A
Eyesight
Deficiency in vitamin can lead to nightblindess - flash of light occurs. Usually first step
before blindness
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Keratinization - keratin buildup on cornea - rough and dry
Xerosis: drying of cornea - recoverable
Xerophthalmia: Not recoverable, too much keratin
Gene expression
o Vitamin A's role in gene expression -> car alone can't take you across town - need
key and to turn key in the ignition to start the motor
o Having the machinery to make genes is not enough, need retinoic acid to activate
and deactivate genes
Cell differentiation
o Allows each type of cell to mature and perform a particular function to protect it
from respiratory infections
Immunity
o Regulation of genes that produce proteins involved I immunity
Growth
o Assists in dismantling of bone for remodeling (support bone growth)
o Deficiency in children evidenced in poor growth
Vitamin A Recommendations
Amounts of vitamin A needed - proportional to B.Wt.
RDA - 700 ug RAE/d/F; 900 ug RAE/d/M
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