Foods and Nutrition 1021 Lecture Notes - Glycemic Index, Microvillus, Hyperglycemia

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Food Study Guide Summary 11/6/2012 12:25:00 PM
Nutrition:
Study of nutrient + biologically active compounds in food and body
o Nutrient indispensible to body’s function required to live
and grow
Energy Yielding Nutrients:
CARBS: 4kcal/g
LIPIDS: 9kcal/g
PROTEIN: 4kcal/g
Non-Energy Yielding: bodily processes, structures (ex. Ca in bones)
Water
Vitamins
Minerals
Essential Nutrients:
Body cannot produce therefore obtained through diet.
o Water, vitamins, minerals (important to health), some
macronutrients
Energy: capacity to do work
Measured in calories:
o Amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temp. of 1L of
water by 1oc
o Food (chemical energy) mechanical, electrical, heat energy
Nutritious Diet:
Adequacy: all proper essential nutrients
Balance: number of types of foods in balance with another high in
one nutrient paired with food rich in another
Calorie Control: foods that provide enough energy to maintain
weight
Moderation
Variety: different foods day to day
Research:
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Canada’s Food Guide:
Functional Foods: offer health benefits beyond meeting basic nutrient needs
Phytochemicals: found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients may
promote health
Different then vitamins or other nutrients because?
o Nonessential
o Protect humans against disease
Act as:
o Antioxidant
o Mimick hormones
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o Inhibit cell division
o Protect DNA from damage
o Inhibit development of new blood vessels in cancerous tumors
Food vs. Supplement:
Choose wide variety of foods some may require additional
supplements to account for missing nutrients
DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes
Recommendations for total energy, macronutrients, vitamins,
minerals and water
Based on HEALTHY populations
o Include:
RDA recommended dietary allowance
Some nutrients don’t have RDA’s
UL upper limit
EAR estimated average requirement
AMDR acceptable macronutrient distribution range
Expressed as a % of daily caloric intake
Carbs: 45-65%
Fats: 20-35%
Proteins: 10-35%
AI adequate intake
Some guesswork
Nutrition Label:
Daily Value: Based on a 2000 calorie/day diet
5% DV = LITTLE
15% DV = LOT
Human Body:
Cells:
Digestive tract cells live for 3 days before reproducing
RBC: 120 Days
Liver: reproduce quickly or whenever needed
Skin: 10-120 days
Muscle: yearly
Brain: never
DNA:
23 pairs of chromosomes
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