Foods and Nutrition 1021 Lecture Notes - Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Ephedrine, Low Birth Weight

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Chapter 8:
Describe the roles of water in the body and explain why it’s the most indispensable nutrient:
The body needs water to live more than any other nutrient
You can survive without food but not without water
60% of body weight
Found in blood vessels, cells, tissues and organs
Delivers nutrients and removes wastes from cells
Nearly universal solvent0 dissolves amino acids, glucose, and minerals
Cleanses body
Cushion for joints
Helps maintain body temperature
Sweat helps cool body because when we are hot it means our metabolism is working
Shock absorber for inside of our eyes
Define water balance, dehydration and water intoxication and provide examples of when these can
occur.
Water Balance: balance between water intake and excretion keep water content constant
Water intake must = water lost
If there is a water imbalance that can lead to dehydration or water intoxication
Dehydration: loss of water
o Progression of symptoms: thirst weakness exhaustion and delirium death
o Athletes and seniors dehydrate easier
o Seniors lose sense of thirst
o Babies dehydrate easier than adults due to body surface relative to weight
Intoxication: dangerous dilution of body fluids because of too much water intake
o Headache, weakness, no concentration, poor memory, loss of appetite
Identify what makes up water input and output and the approximate percentages of each component.
Water Input:
Fluids: 70%
Metabolism: 10%
Food: 20%
Water Output:
Kidneys: 35-50%
Skin: 30%
Lungs: 15%
Feces: 17%
The brain and kidneys regular water output and the brain regulates water input
We lose most of our water from pee and gain most from fluids
We lose and gain water through our skin
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Recognize the different symptoms of mild and severe dehydration, identify who may be at risk for
these conditions and list several factors that can increase fluid needs.
Mild Dehydration: loss of <5% of body weight
o Thirst, sudden weight loss, dry skin, low blood pressure, lack of energy, bad kidney
function, less urination, fever, faint
Severe Dehydration: loss of >5%
o Pale skin, blue lips and fingertips, rapid breathing, weak, thickened blood, shock,
seizure, coma, death
Chronic low fluid intake: increases the likelihood of cancer, gallstones, kidney stones, UTIs,
heart problems
Factors that can increase fluid needs: Body side, altitude change, fibre- more fibre more fluids
needed, extreme weather, age- baby or seniors, blood loss, pregnant, medication
DRI: men: 13 cups women: 9 cups
Diuretic: compound that promotes water exertion i.e. caffeine
Explain the differences between hard and soft water and any pros/cons of each.
Hard Water: high in calcium and magnesium
o Leaves residue
Soft Water: high in sodium
o Can aggravate hypertension and heart disease
o Contaminants such as cadmium and lead are easier dissolved
Hard water is better for you than soft water because sodium in soft water isn’t good for you
Describe three ways to make water safe to drink, if needed.
1. Boiling: boil for one minute and let cool to kill all the known pathogens
2. Unscented Chlorine Bleach: mix 2 drops of bleach per litre of water and let it sit for 30
minutes to kill most pathogens
3. Disinfecting Tablets: releases iodine and chlorine and is effective against most pathogens
Identify the causes and symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
Fluid and electrolyte balance: keeping proper amounts of fluids and minerals in the body
An imbalance can occur when we don’t maintain the right amounts in our body and a medical
emergency occurs
Acid- base balance: keeping proper degree of acidity in body fluids
List examples of and identify features of the major and trace minerals in the body.
Minerals: inorganic, chemical elements, natural
There are two types of minerals:
1. Major: essential nutrients, found in the body in amounts > 5 grams
a. Calcium, phosphorous, chloride, magnesium, potassium, sulfur
2. Trace: essential nutrients, found in the body in amounts < 5 grams
a. Iron zinc copper iodine
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Describe the primary roles/functions in the body, major food sources, health concerns for
toxicity/deficiency of the major minerals
Sulfate: Role - Required for the synthesis of many important sulfur-containing compounds
Help strands of protein assume their functional shape
Skin, hair, and nails
Deficiencies
Unknown
Toxicity
From too much sulfate in water, either naturally occurring or from
contamination
Diarrhea
Colon damage
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