Foods and Nutrition 1021 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Gout, Thyroid Hormones, Ketosis

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1/24/2019 Food and Nutrition Chapter 9 - Google Docs
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dWrENFR-QRdJjKWQS-A3cdP90RT4BQKQUnDjK-P44ZA/edit 1/8
Chapter9:EnergyBalanceandHealthyBodyWeight
FN1021
RisksfrombeingUnderweight
● diefirstduringasiegeorfamine
● Disadvantagedduringtimesofsurgeryorillnessesthatlimittheirintakes(fasting,low
appetite)ofincreasetheiroutputs
● Thosefightingawastingdisease,maydiefromstarvation
● Peopleneedbodyfatstoresforenergyreserves,protectionforthebones,organsand
nutrientstores,bodytemperaturecontrols
RisksfromOverweight/Obesity
MildtoModerateOverweight
● Increasedrisksfordiseases
● Riskofprematuredeath
Obese
● Nowdeclaredachronicdisease
● MajorriskforCVD(HBP,HD)
OtherRisk
● Highbloodlipids,sleepapnea,gout,arthritis
● Abdominalhernias,livermalfunction,flatfeet
● Varicoseveins,gallbladderdisease
● Respiratoryproblems,kidneystones
● Complicationsinpregnancysurgery
● Highaccidentrate,someCAs
RisksfromCentralObesity
● Centralabdominal(visceral)fat:increasedriskfordiabetes,stroke,hypertension,
coronaryarterydisease
● Menofallages,womenpastmenopause,smokers,alcoholics,carryweightcentrally,
“apple”profile
● Womeninreproductiveyears,develop“pear”profile,fataroundhips
BodyWeightClassificationinAdults
Waistcircumference–visceralfatnessinproportiontobodyfatness;indicatorofhealth
risk(type2DM,CHD,HBP);men>102cm(40in);women>88cm(35in)
● Person’sdiseaseriskprofile–riskfactorssuchasHBP,type2DM,elevatedblood
cholesterol,smoking,alcoholicdrinking
BodyMassIndex
BMI=(weightinkg)/(heightinm2)
ExampleCalculations:
1. Female54kg/(1.6)^2=21.1NormalWeight
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1/24/2019 Food and Nutrition Chapter 9 - Google Docs
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dWrENFR-QRdJjKWQS-A3cdP90RT4BQKQUnDjK-P44ZA/edit 2/8
2. Male68kg/(1.7)^2=23.5NormalWeight
3. Female88kg/1.65^2=32.3ObeseClass1
4. Male120kg/1.86^2=34.7ObeseClass1
BMIValues
● Mostvaluableforevaluatingdegreesofobesity
● Lessusefulforevaluatingnonobesepeople’sbodyfatness
TwoMajorDrawbacks
● 1)Failuretoindicatehowmuchoftheweightisfat
● 2)Failuretoindicatewherethefatislocated
BMIisnotSuitedfor:
● Athletes:highlydevelopedmusclesincreasevalues
● Pregnant&Lactatingwomen:increasedweightnormalinchildbearing
● Adultsover65yearsoldpeople“growshorter”withage
EvaluatingBodyFatness
● Skinfoldorfatfoldtest(calipers):accurateestimateoftotalbodyfat&fairassessmentof
location
● Waistcircumference(tapemeasurement)visceralfatness:cutoffpointsmen102cm
(40in);women88cm(35inch)
Density:leantissueisdenserthanfat
● Underwaterweighing:measuresBWcomparedwithvolumedisplaced:leantissue
densethanfattissue
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1/24/2019 Food and Nutrition Chapter 9 - Google Docs
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dWrENFR-QRdJjKWQS-A3cdP90RT4BQKQUnDjK-P44ZA/edit 3/8
Conductivity
● Bioelectricalimpedanceanalysis:leantissue&waterconductelectricalcurrent;fatdoes
not
● Needadequatewaterinbodyforaccurateresults
AverageBodyComposition
● Men:45%muscle,25%organs,15%fat,15%bone
● Women:36%muscle,24%organs,27%fat,13%bone
● Substantiallygreaterfattissueisnormal&necessaryforreproduction
“GoSignals”
Hunger:physiologicalneedtoeat:triggeredbycontractingemptystomach&small
intestine,itadaptsquicklycontractsorenlarges
Appetite:physiologicaldesiretoeat:learnedbymotivation,positivesensations,affected
byaversions,cravings,environment,temperature
“StopSignals”
Satiation:perceptionoffullness&satisfactionthathaltseating;determineshowmuch
foodisconsumedinonesitting
Satiety:fullnesslingershoursafterameal;determineslengthoftimebetweenmeals
Hormone“leptin”:apeptidehormoneproducedbythefattissue;suppressesappetite
&foodintakebetweenmeals
● Protein:mostsatiatingfoodtogetherwithfiber;sustainssatietyfarlongerthanthosein
highinfat,whiteflourorsugar
SelectedMetabolicTheoriesofObesity
Enzymetheory:elevatedlipoproteinlipaseenablesfatcellstostoreTGs
Fatcellnumbertheory:no.&sizeoffatcellsdeterminebodyfatness;fatcellno,may
increasemorerapidlyinobesechildren
Setpointtheory:bodychoosesaweightanddefendsitbyregulatingbehavioursand
metabolicactivities;ifweightislostorgainedyousetpointchangesitsmetabolicenergy
expendituretorestorethechosenweight
● Thermogenesis:enzymes‘waste’small%ofenergyasheat,thusbodycanspendmore
excessenergy
InsidetheBody:Genetic
● Geneticstronglyinfluencesaperson’stendencytobecomeobese
ChangesinBodyWeight
● Reflectsshiftsinbodyfluidcontent,inboneminerals,leantissuesincontentofbladder
ordigestivetract
● Correlateswithtimeofday;leastweightbeforebreakfast
ResponsetoEarlyFoodDeprivation
● Infasting,glycogenfromliverdepletedquickly,glycogenmusclesnotreleased
● Fuelformuscles,heart,otherorgans=FAT
● Fuelfornervoussystem=GLUCOSE
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